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Step 1 - External Environment

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Phase 3

3 Phases of Change


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Step 3 - After the Change





Element  2 of the Drivers of Change model:  People


Get Motivated!

Element 2: People and Behavior Theory:

William James of Harvard found that motivated employees work at 80 to 90 percent of their ability while unmotivated employees work at about 20 to 30 percent of their ability.

Hershey, Paul, and Kenneth H. Blanchard, Dewey E. Johnson. Management of
Organizational Behavior Leading Human Resources. 8th ed. Upper
Saddle River, NJ: Princetice Hall, 2001.

A 1995 National Survey of Executives by the Healthy Companies Institute

  1. 98 % Agreed Improving Employee Performance Would Significantly Increase Company Productivity 

  2. 73 % Claimed that Employees Were Their Companies’ Most Important Asset 

  3. But In Ranking Priorities Listed People as 5th or 6th.

Robert H. Rosen with Paul B. Brown, Transforming Business From the Inside Out, LEADING PEOPLE.

    People and Behavior theory is represented by the foundation of the organization because nothing happens without people.  Behavior can take many directions.  A large number of studies have postulated different theories on human-work responses, motivations and behaviors.  If the organization is aware of the theories of such people as Maslow, McGregor and Herzberg, then they will focus on organic systems that make positive management systems and culture.  Otherwise, they will live with the cost and problems of a mechanistic culture.  The purpose of this element of the model is to represent the interrelationships between people and the work of the organization.



Attorney Fred S. Steingold. “Motivating Your Employees.” Hrtools, Build a Better Business. 2008. 1 Sept 2008


Found by Kellye D. Perry (TNU 2008)



Here is a good example of a paper that compares an article (“The 10 Commandments of Workplace Motivation” by Roxanne Emmerich) with the great writers on motivation.




Motivational Leadership and Starbucks

By Tiffany Smith, (TNU 2008)

     Leaders must be the greatest sales people of all time. Jack Welch stated, “Good business leaders create a vision, articulate the vision, passionately own the vision, and relentlessly drive it to completion” (Hersey, pg.79). Leaders are not just born with the ability to lead they are inspired by a goal or a dream. The ability to attain that goal is what makes a person become a leader. Leaders are the people in an organization that make sure everyone else is on the right path to accomplish the common goal. Leaders do not have the capabilities to accomplish the dream alone. Leaders possess certain characteristics that enable others to achieve that dream. Today’s companies must incorporate this mindset of leadership. Starbucks is an example of what other companies should strive to mirror.

     According to our text, “Managers must meet the needs and aspirations of the follower” (Hersey, pg.2). On Howard Schultz’s first day as CEO of Starbucks, he shared his vision with the employees. Schultz did this in order to empower the employees to be part of that vision. He enlisted their help in achieving the goal he had set forth for the company he planned to build. During this meeting, Shultz realized in order to achieve this dream he first had to repair the moral of the people. In the process of expanding the company, Shultz’s wanted to make Starbucks an enjoyable place to work. He strived to attract employees who would enjoy their work and in turn would perform at higher levels. The management team sought to understand and meet the needs of all the employees. One of the first steps would be to provide full-time benefits to part-time employees. The employees felt that this provided a commitment from Starbucks to its employees while reducing turnover. The decrease in turnover would in turn provide greater, more personal customer satisfaction. Schultz stated, “Part-timers were vital to Starbucks,” and argued that, “providing them benefits would signal that the company honored their value and contribution” (McGraw-Hill pgs 4-5). Shultz continued to empower the employees by creating a Mission Review team. Employees were to speak-up if anyone violated the mission statement of Starbucks. Through hands-on and interactive leadership styles, Starbucks built a company in which the employees shared in the success.

     The text states that companies, in order to be successful, must understand the goals and needs of its people. The article on Starbucks is an example of one method of achieving this success. It is extremely important for leaders to get the buy-in of the employees, but also be truly concerned with their needs and motivations.

Works Cited



Notes, Bytes, and Motivation:

Individual and Environmental Motivators in Music and IT


By James Capozzi, Elizabeth Carter, Brant Goble, Ryan O’Connell (TNU 2007)




How to Build Motivation Review

Janine Helton (TNU 2007)

            In the article, “How to Build Motivation in Today’s Workplace,” from the March 17, 2003 online edition of the Christian Science Monitor, author Gregory M. Lamb discusses the growing problem of decreased employee motivation within the American workforce.  He attributes the problem to factors such as increased unemployment, few advancement opportunities, dwindling benefits, and insignificant wage increases.  The result, he explains, is employee burnout, fear, and feelings of paralysis.  Lamb states that in order to combat these feelings, human-resource experts suggest that both employees and employers take steps in improving morale.

            The article notes that studies indicate workers value a sense of accomplishment in their work over a high salary, and that challenges within their work serve as motivation.  It continues by explaining that unless handled properly, incentives such as money or promotions can actually be counter-effective.  Likewise, threats from management, especially in times of economic instability, can cause employees to shut down and adopt a “survival” mode philosophy, which is counter-intuitive to a “success” mode philosophy.  Lamb makes these practical suggestions for managing others during difficult economic conditions:  monetary rewards should only be linked to performance; motivate employees with praise for exemplary work; discover and work with employees’ personal goals; and treat employees fairly and honestly when making decisions in order to prevent motivation crises. The article concludes with suggestions for employees to help improve their own feelings about work during difficult times.  These include negotiating for benefits, networking, maintaining visibility, and adopting a long-range vision.

            The article by Gregory M. Lamb coincided in all points with the text, Management of Organizational Behavior, by Hersey, Blanchard and Johnson.  Both sources suggest that environmental perception plays a vital role in an employee’s hopes for achieving personal goals, and both agree that when employees feel frustration in goal attaining, motivation suffers.  Both sources suggest that a Theory X style of management that includes the use of threats fosters divisiveness between management and labor and results in de-motivated people. The article and text also agreed that research indicates employees are looking for more than monetary reward within the work experience.  Both stated that employees are often looking for a sense of accomplishment in addition to a salary.  Likewise, both sources suggested that attainable challenges and a sense of capability act as strong motivating factors for employees.  Finally, both sources stress the importance of honesty and a sense of fair play on the part of management in order to build an atmosphere in which employees are motivated.  They explain that once motivated, employees will want increased work responsibilities and greater authority in making decisions relating to their jobs.


Works Cited

Hersey, Paul, Kenneth H. Blanchard, and Dewey E. Johnson.  Management of Organizational Behavior.  Upper Saddle River:  Prentice Hall, 2001.

Lamb, Gregory M.  “How to Build Motivation in Today’s Workplace.”  Christian Science Monitor.  March, 2003.  <>



Motivation Key to Employee Performance

(By Kim Coleman, TNU 2007) 


     Merriam-Webster defines motivation as “something that arouses action or activity.” For the parent, motivation may mean getting a child to pick up his toys. For the teacher, motivation may involve inspiring students to turn in assignments on time or prepare for a test. For the cardi-ologist, motivation may mean getting a patient to eat healthy or exercise. For the manager, motivation “in the workplace [means] . . . get[ting] things done through employees” (Accel-Team “Employee”).


     In essence, an examination of motivation is a study of “human nature itself” (Accel-Team “Employee”). Theories regarding motivation in the workplace suggest a number of driving forces ranging from the physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization needs of Abraham Maslow’s hierarchal theory to the hygiene-motivators of Frederick Herzberg’s theory (Hershey, Blanchard, and Johnson 73). According to Maslow, “Man’s behavior is seen as dominated by his unsatisfied needs” (Accel-Team “Motivation”). In contrast to Maslow’s basis of needs or motives, Herzberg theorizes that goals and incentives are the central components of motivation (Hershey, Blanchard, and Johnson 69). Herzberg suggests, “People work first and foremost in their own self-enlightened interest, for they are truly happy and mentally healthy through work accomplishment” (Accel-Team “Motivation”). Further, he differentiates between animal needs, or hygiene factors—supervision, interpersonal relations, working conditions, salary—and human needs, or motivators—recognition, work, responsibility, advancement
(Accel-Team “Motivation”).


     Hershey, Blanchard, and Johnson make a direct correlation between the theories of Maslow and Herzberg by identifying Maslow’s “physiological, safety, social and part of the esteem needs  [as] . . . hygiene factors” defined by Herzberg (70). Further, Maslow’s esteem needs are split between Herzberg’s hygiene factors and motivators because esteem needs can be either status or recognition needs, depending on whether or not “the position one occupies . . . [has been] gained through family ties . . . [or] personal achievement” (70). Clearly, Herzberg’s motivators are closely tied to the highest need in Maslow’s hierarchy—self-actualization—at which stage “man is totally absorbed in order to attain perfection through self-development” (Accel-Team “Motivation”).


     Herzberg’s theory diverges from that of Maslow in its course. While Maslow sees a person’s work somewhat as a fulfillment of an inherent destiny, Herzberg sees it as an opportunity to grow in which anyone can be motivated by job enrichment, or “the deliberate upgrading of responsibility” (Hershey, Blanchard, and Johnson 71). Ultimately, Maslow’s worker reaches a place in life “characterized by integrity, responsibility, magnamity, simplicity and naturalness” driven by innate needs, while Herzberg’s worker reaches the ultimate stage through a series of enrichments through external factors or incentives (Accel-Team “Motivation”).


     Despite the differences in their approaches, Maslow and Herzberg suggest that people generally seek “security, social systems, and personal growth” (Hershey, Blanchard, and Johnson 73). For the manager to be effective in his own workplace, he will look for ways to meet those basic needs in his workforce and motivate his people to accomplish corporate goals. Clearly, motivation is critical to employee performance.



Works Cited


Accel-Team. “Employee Motivation: Theory and Practice.” 10 August 2007.


---. “Motivation Theorists and Their Theories.” 10 August 2007.


Hershey, Paul, Kenneth H. Blanchard, and Dewey E. Johnson. Management of Organizational Behavior. 8th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001.


“Motivation.” Merriam-Webster Thesaurus. Merriam-Webster Online. 13 August 2007.



Motivating Students

by Sean M. Alexander (TNU 2006)

The Spring 2006 issue of College Teaching included an article by Anna D’Aloisio entitled “Motivating Students Through Awareness of The Natural Correlation Between College Learning and Corporate Work Settings.” The article briefly discussed the difficulty that college faculty have motivating students. By the author’s own admission, there were no grand pronouncements or silver bullet theories. Instead, the author made the case for emphasizing corporate and business applications regarding the material covered in class.

The article describes many of the problems in “. . . motivating students to participate in their own education. . .” (225) The article lists lack of interest, laziness, social obligations, and a myriad of other reasons to explain the lack of student interest. Ms. D’Aloisio recommends professors try to motivate students by explaining how the assigned work will directly benefit them in their future workplace. Once that explanation is given, Ms. D’Aloisio believes students may be more willing to modify their earlier resistance to a course.

Often, students who have a chosen career path experience difficulty in completing classes that are not directly related to their major. To combat this, Ms. D’Aloisio recommends emphasizing time management skills, coherent writing, solid presentation skills, mastery of the English language, and group cooperation as the main learning objectives for student’s who take such a position (228). Doing so can provide the motivation needed for all students to actively pursue excellence in every course they take.

The article directly relates to Argyris’s Immaturity-Maturity Continuum referenced in Management of Organizational Behavior (65). Traditional undergraduate students rarely are considered the most mature of adults. This immaturity might cause students to be more passive and unwilling or unable to see the long-term benefits of every course taken. Therefore, giving carefully designed instruction that emphasizes practical application can help to engage the students. Clearly, students must take the initiative to learn and retain course material. However, mature, motivated professors and teachers can design lesson plans that engage otherwise disinterested students.

Works Cited

  1. D’Aloisio, Anna. “Motivating Students Through Awareness of the Natural Correlation
    Between College Learning and Corporate Work Settings.” College Teaching
    Spring 2006: 225-229.

  2. ProQuest. Trevecca Nazarene University Library,
    Nashville, TN. 04 Oct. 2006 <>.

  3. Hersey, Paul, Kenneth H. Blanchard, and Dewey E. Johnson. Management of
    Organizational Behavior: Leading Human Resources. Upper Saddle River:
    Prentice Hall, 2001.



Organizational Motivation from an Employee Viewpoint 


By Michelle Parkin, Jason Charlton, Brad Coffey, and Pam Williams

Organizations can motivate employees by using employee opinions across a broad range of organizational factors. A Cultural Health Index (CHI) survey can assist management in determining employee motivational factors. The CHI survey will assist managers in identifying areas for improvement. Managers can use the statistical method of the CHI to improve the overall employee satisfaction within their organization.
The CHI will identify three areas of importance: organizational alignment, capability, and engagement. The organization can develop resolutions in the areas needing improvement by using an action plan. The action plan can assist mangers with tracking the progress of the improvements implemented.

A CHI survey gauges alignment of management and employee goals. Management and employee alignment is critical for employee motivation. The company will be better equipped to succeed with managerial and employee goals aligned to each other. All employees must agree with the purpose of the goals within the organization. Attitudes have to align with organizational goals or the company will never reach its complete potential.1 Using a survey like the CHI a company can align awareness to issues, values, and strategy within itself and bring about unity with each employee.2

A company wants to make sure everyone is on the same page and working together toward a common goal.
Employee Alignment allows management to ensure all company views cascade across the company. It is important for all employees to understand the work they perform matters.3 If the company’s goals and employee’s goals are not in alignment, then the company is unfocused. The noninvolvement of upper levels of management can attribute to the failure of organization when company strategy and employee views are not in alignment. The noninvolvement of upper management can lead to the de-motivation of other employees. Organizations properly aligned have measurements in place to hold upper management accountable.4 The CHI survey provides management with the ability to gauge and measure capabilities within the whole organization.

Each position within an organization uses certain tools to better accomplish goals. These tools may range from business models to the necessary financial means to operate a department or division. It is the responsibility of each organization to provide these necessities to their employees. The responsibility of the employees is to utilize these tools to reach organizational goals. Companies face the challenges of understanding the job and the tools necessary for the workforce. The CHI survey assists managers in answering this question.

Several questions asked in the survey relate to management’s performance in successfully giving employees the tools necessary to perform their duties. A majority of these relate to the training provided by the company. The training of employees is possibly the most important capability a company can provide in the pursuit of greater motivation and productivity. According to Christopher S. Frings, the positive affects of employee training are far reaching. He states, “My observation during the past 35 years is that employees who receive regular training from their employers are more productive, develop a stronger sense of company loyalty, have higher morale, and tend to stay with an organization longer.”

Employee training is only one of the capability issues that may be addressed with this survey. The CHI survey will expose any shortcomings on the part of management with respect to this and many other organizational issues. The capability of employees to effectively perform their duties is an issue that must be under constant scrutiny. If managers are not sufficiently providing the necessary tools to their employees a CHI survey will expose the shortcomings. Along with providing capability information, the survey will also gauge the engagement aspect of managerial employee relations.

Employee engagement can be one of the most important factors in a survey such as the CHI. Engagement allows the employee the opportunity to voice his opinions. If an employee does not have the opportunity to voice his opinions, he will be less motivated to do his job. It is through engagement that a company can find areas needing improvement. “Gallup published research proves that engaged employees are more productive employees. It also proved that engaged employees are more profitable, more customer-focused, safer, and more likely to withstand temptations to leave. Many have suspected a connection between an employee's level of engagement and the quality of his performance.5”

The CHI survey developed by Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) human resources department has assisted the company in improving employee motivation. The survey described in this publication uses questions to gage organizational alignment, capability, and engagement. The employee can add comments to the survey giving details and descriptions on improving the organization. A team of employees can analyze the information on the survey by using graph and charts. The team then develops action plans to address the areas in need of improvement.

The following is a Cultural Health Index Survey developed by TVA for the employees in all organizational lines to complete. The survey is analyzed and answered quarterly.

• The Winning Performance process is a way of life in my business unit.
• TVA’s values and Winning Behaviors are a way of life in my workgroup.
• I know what is expected of me on the job.
• My organization’s current fiscal year performance plans have been reviewed
• I feel comfortable reporting an unsafe act or condition.
• Identified industrial safety issues receive a high priority by my supervisor.
• My supervisor and I worked together in an effective manner to jointly set my performance objectives for this fiscal year.
• I have the knowledge necessary to explain TVA decisions to people in the community.
• My SBU leader and his/her direct reports provide clear direction.
• I can count on my SBU leader and his/her direct reports to follow through and do what they say they will do.
• I understand what our unit’s customers expect from our unit and me.
• I use my top skills and abilities everyday doing my job.
• I have the materials and equipment that I need to do my job.
• My supervisor takes the time often enough to talk about my progress on the job.
• The equipment used in my job is in good working condition.
• I receive the training I need to perform my job.
• My workgroup performs well as a team.
• I have seen positive changes in my business unit because of the last CHI survey.
• TVA manages its resources and business processes in a cost effective way.
• I am challenged and excited by my work.
• I would recommend TVA as a place to work.
• I can trust what I hear from my workgroup.
• My job is not a source of major stress in my life.
• I feel a sense of control over my work.
• Overall, I am able to maintain balance between my work with TVA and my personal life at home.
• I am proud to work at TVA
• I can trust what I hear from my supervisor.
• I am treated with respect and dignity.
• I know my ideas and opinions are considered when decisions are made.
• My considerations and efforts are recognized and appreciated on a weekly basis.
• Overall, I am satisfied with my job at TVA.

In addition to answering the above survey, employees are able to make comments on the employee’s view for improvement. Once the surveys have been analyzed, the organization can develop action plans.

The action plans are given to owners or people responsible for accomplishing the goal or improvement. The team presents the action plans formed from the CHI survey to upper management. The employees assigned to the CHI team are responsible in holding management accountable for addressing each action plan. As each action plan is developed and accomplished, the organization must inform other employees.
As employees observe their company taking action to improve the organization, employee motivation will rise. Organizations will have better productivity and more employee retention. A new survey issued annually will keep the organization connected to its employees. Motivated employees and a healthy workplace will align the organization, give it the capability to reach its goals, and engage the employees with the managers.

End Notes

1. Flint, Norma. "New Survey Measures Employee Alignment and Engagement” 2004 September 6. <http://

2. Employee Alignment “ Align to Motivate” 2006, Gelb Consulting Group Inc

3. “Employee Alignment” Success Factors

4. “Employee Alignment with Business Strategy” 1999-2006
Metrus Group-Measurement-Managed Results-

5. Frings, Christopher S. “Importance of Training” 2004

6. Employee Engagement “The Employee Side of the Human Sigma Equation.”

7. Cultural Health Index Survey, TVA Human Resources Department

8. Action Plan Template, TVA Human Resources Department



Unfolding the Art of Employee Morale


by: Jennifer Stockling, Helen Martin, and Libby Rutledge (TNU)


Studies have proven that poor employee morale is a result of poor communication and motivation. “Employee and manager morale dipped even further toward the end of 2002, and the current climate that businesses are operating in does not offer any promising turnaround.” (Levine). Management and employees have the responsibility of contributing to the improvement and maintenance of employee morale in the workplace. Management must identify poor morale, the causes of poor morale, and take action to improve poor morale.


How does management identify poor morale in the workplace?


Morale is a mental condition related to courage, confidence, and enthusiasm.


The signs of poor morale are:



·        Absenteeism

·        Tardiness

·        Turnover

·        Errors              

·        Customer complaints



·        Productivity

·        Quality


“Morale is not a cause, but rather the effect or result of many factors going awry.” (Javitch)


What causes poor employee morale in the workplace?


The absence of effective communication between management, employees, and co-workers are a leading cause of poor morale in the workplace. Effective communication is the exchanging of information that produces a desired result. Employees need to understand their objectives. “An employee without a clear understanding of the goals or without a sense of how their work fits into the overall goal of the unit, department, or section, can easily waste time on tasks that aren’t consistent with the boss’s objectives.” (Javitch) Without clear understanding, a group of people will hear different expectations from the same information. (Smith) Effective communication involves personalization, understanding, and feedback.


Employees also need to know that their managers have concern for their employees. “If the employee believes the boss doesn’t care about the task at hand or doesn’t care about the employee, then the employee probably won’t care about the task, the employer, or the company. And voila! - you have decreased morale.” (Javitch) In addition, poor working conditions cause poor employee morale.


It is up to the management of the company to ensure that employees have standardized, efficient, and suitable working conditions for the environment. “The workplace should be safe and pleasant. Don’t expect employees to use outdated, faulty equipment or furniture.” (Levine) An employee performing a job with unsuitable tools is not going to be as productive as the employee who has suitable tools. For this reason, management must standardize not only the process to manufacture the product but standardize the workstation for each employee and the tools to manufacture the product. Employees who are working in an efficient environment are more likely to have a higher output of a quality product. With this in mind, it is important that the working conditions are suitable in order to maintain a productive level and produce a quality part. The lack of suitable working conditions also causes a higher stress level on employees.


 “Job stress is a chronic disease caused by conditions in the workplace that negatively affect an individual’s performance and/ or overall well being of his body and mind.” (Life Positive) Job stress is a result of job requirements not matching the capability, resources, or needs of the employee, while job insecurity is a change under intense economic transformations and consequent pressure. Demand for high performance, increased workload, long hours, and time spent away from families contribute to stress. Technology-computers, pagers, cell phones, fax machines, and the Internet pressures employees to operate at peak performance levels. Workplace culture, personal, and family problems are other factors that cause job stress. After identifying the causes of poor morale in the workplace, management must take steps to improve employee morale.


How management improves employee morale in the workplace.


            Communication will improve morale. Improving morale through communication starts with personal contact instead of electronic communication. (Smith) When using personal contact, the manager needs to show concern for the employee. Showing concern means using the person’s name, asking their opinion, and asking how they are. (Javitch) Employee morale will improve when managers show personal and professional respect for employees. (Hudson) Communicating goals and recognizing efforts of the employee improves morale. (Javitch) “Appreciate your employees- regularly commend individual progress, show pride in the accomplishments of the team, and visibly celebrate success” (Hudson). Feedback on performance and goals will lead to improved communication and morale.


            “One of the biggest morale busters is placing people in positions they don’t enjoy or they don’t have the talent, knowledge, or skill to excel.” (Maroney) The importance of positioning the right employee into the right job is as important as coming to work every day. An employee positioned in a job he / she is incapable of performing will have a sense of failure and low morale. Employees who enjoy the work they perform have a higher productive rate with better quality. These employees invest in the company, take a sense of pride in their work, and have high morale. “Remember the old saying, ‘Find a job you love and you’ll never work another day in your life.’” (Miller & Smith) Management can help employees who are not in the job they love deal with stress.


            Management needs to learn good stress busters and teach them to the employees. “As a first step, organizations should identify the problem.” (Reskin) Understanding the problem leads to arrangement and implementation of the solution. Ideas taken from the employees or a consulting firm that will develop prevention and redesign jobs. “Good job design accommodates a person’s mental and physical ability.” (  Job design guidelines will help control workplace stress. Employees taught to relax throughout the day and take regular stretch breaks help reduce stress. Employees allowed to take charge of their situations, prioritize tasks, and responsibilities help stress. Management must allow employees to make practical suggestions to reduce stress. Co-workers must be honest with one another and realistic about changes that deal with the physical, emotional and financial well-being that help reduce stress.


Management must identify poor morale, the causes of poor morale, and take action to improve poor morale. Management that realizes these needs and makes efforts to meet these needs will form a cohesive, productive, and efficient workforce. Unfolding the art of employee morale assists organizations to protect its most valuable assets, the employees. 



Work Cited

Hudson, Michael Dr. “Solving The Mystery of Employee Morale.”

            www.EVERYDAYLEADER.COM . 10 Jul 2003. 8 Aug 2006



Javitch, David. “Improving Employee Morale.”  02 Jan. 2005. 18

 Aug. 2006 <,4621,32578,00.html>.


Levine, Terri. “Boost Employee Morale.”  20 Aug 2006.

 <> .


Maroney, JP. “Morale Builders Morale Busters.”  Nov 2004.



Miller, Ph.D., Lyle H. and Alma Dell Smith, Ph.D. “Stress in the Workplace”.  26 Aug 2006.



Reskin, Ann. “Working with Stress”.  3 Sept 2006.



Smith, Shawn. “Remove your workplace communication barriers: they are costing you

            more than you think.” Next Level Consulting, LLC. 23 Aug 2006



“Stress at Work.”  26 Aug 2006.



“Workplace Stress”. Nonprofit Risk Management Center. 3 Sept 2006.




By Kyle McBee, Andrea Miller, Jackie Hopkins, and Anna Guess


Incentive programs can be a very important aspect of a company’s business when used effectively. Employees may need something extra from time to time and this little extra, will help the company. When an incentive program is effectively used, it can increase employee motivation, employee morale, and it is beneficial to the company’s recruitment of other employees. It is the company’s job to find an incentive program best suited for its work environment.


Employee Stock Ownership Plan (ESOP)


Good managers have always tried to motivate employees. Companies often spend large amounts of money trying to make the employees “happy.” If there were one weakness, it would be in how the companies listen to the employees. United Airlines listened to its’ employees in July 1994. The employees announced the purchase of their own company for $5 billion through ESOP (Employee Stock Ownership Plan). An ESOP gives the employees of a company the option to purchase shares of the company. So now, in the case of United Airlines, there was a rise in employee productivity and morale because the employees feel more important, they “co-owned” the company. In the case of United Airlines, stocks rose about 120% due to this buyout.

Every company or small business owner desires a positive employee attitude, which leads to high productivity and quality. United Airlines achieved this when the employees took action. However, in the majority of businesses, management has to make the first move.

Job Rotation Program.


Rotating jobs within a company could be very beneficial, both to the company and to the employee. Allowing employees to become more familiar with other aspects of the business also encourages them to be more productive in their own capacity. The employees see how the “end product” comes about following their own contribution. For the company it is an opportunity for manager to observe employees in different environments. The managers have a chance to see how certain employees adapt to change and/or pressures in a new area. This could prove to be a helpful as specific employees become eligible for other promotions.

Not only will job rotation allow the employee to feel more needed, but it also allows the company to have various employees who are able to fill if needed.


"Time Off For Time Spent" program.

This incentive program rewards employees for not missing days at work. For example, if an employee does not miss any days in a month, he or she may receive two hours of time off. This time off is paid for personal time and not considered vacation. If the time is not used it carries over to the next month. The following table is an example of time off for time spent:


Time Off For Time Spent
Months Worked Hours Off Rewarded
1 month 2
2 months 4
3 months 6
4 months 8


Time-off is a motivating factor for employees. Victor Vroom’s expectancy theory relates to this table, because employees give effort and performance with the expectancy of a reward. This incentive program gives employees another reason to be at work everyday, and it demonstrates to the employees, that the company notices their hard work. The effect of this incentive program is to increase everyone’s motivation and morale.


Incentive Pyramid plan


To understand how simply this incentive is; one must first understand Maslow’s Hierarchy Theory. Maslow’s theory states that humans must achieve basic needs before moving to the next levels of the hierarchy. Maslow designed five levels of human needs: physiological, safety, social, esteem and self-actualization. The first level is fulfilling the basic human needs of food, clothing, and shelter. The second level is fulfilling the need of safety, free from fear. The third level is fulfilling social acceptance. The fourth level is esteem, recognition, and respect. Finally, the fifth level, self-actualization, says to become your full potential. With a little imagination, an organization can apply its needs to each level. Employees earn rewards as they successfully complete a lower level requirement. The requirements and rewards increase with each level.

Incentives for employees are a very essential part of any company whether these incentives are monetary or just encouraging. Allowing a company to have an overall incentive program should encourage all employees to do their best. Using positive reinforcement and encouragement is always a proper way to address employees. When an employee feels that, he or she makes a difference and their opinions matter their respect for the company increases.

Incentives, which are properly organized and handled within a company, can bring about better production, better morale, and happier employees, which are the goals of most companies. Employees work better when they have something to look forward too, and employees need to know the company notices their hard work. Smart and effective incentive programs can help employees enjoy the job he or she does and this in turn is beneficial to the company.


Works Cited
1. Hersey, Paul, Kenneth H. Blanchard, and Dewey E. Johnson. Management of Organizational Behavior: Leading Human Resources. Prentice-Hall, Inc., 2001.
2. Lang, Joan. “Is it Time to ‘Perk’ Up?” Business Source Premier vol. 19, issue 8 (2006). 29
3. Marken, Andy G.A. “The Effective Employee Incentive Program.” Winston J. Brill & Associates February 2004. 28 Aug. 2006   
4. Ward, Susan. “Successful Employee Recruitment for Small Business.” 28 Aug. 2006 <> 



Motivation:“U Rock”

The motivational article for this summary paper was located in Trevecca’s online library under Business Source Premier. Dave Marinis wrote the article from American Banker dated April 7, 2006, volume 171, issue 67, and page 11.

The article discusses “reward and recognition” as a motivational tool for employees and the lasting impressions that awards can have. The storyline is about a bank manager running into a former employee and she reminds him of the cherished award she received from him and had held on to even after several years. From the article, Marinis explains, “While in that job I often used the phrase ‘You rock’ whenever one of our managers would share success stories or exceptional results with the group. I’ve always been a big believer in simple ‘attaboy’ or ‘attagirl’ notes. It dawned on me that if I told someone, ‘You rock,’ it would make sense to hand them a ‘U Rock’.” The manager actually went out, purchased river stones, wrote a big “U” on one side, and then signed it.

Employees received a “U Rock” if they had demonstrated wonderful customer service or had great sales results. The employee in the story stresses to her previous manager how much this award meant to her.
The remarkable thing about this story is how a small, inexpensive item can have such a monumental impact toward the motivation of an employee. Similarly, in the article, Marinis points out, “A senior manager telephoning a front-line employee to acknowledge a job well done costs nothing. Yet the impact can be significant.” It is remarkable to see how simple praise and acknowledgement can have huge impact on someone. Whether on a personal or professional level, it is important to remember the significance of commending others for a job well done.


Janet B. Calhoun (TNU 2006)

This is a slide we use for discussions.




Found by Patricia Fields (TNU 2006)



Good Motivational Websites

Papers On People and Motivation



Burnout: Identification and Treatment/Prevention


By Dr. Dale W. Barner (Team Leader), Robin Nicholson, Ken Woods (TNU 2005)


I.          Introduction


Burnout is a condition that affects both employees and business owners/managers.  A caterer that served multiple civic clubs for the past three years is retiring.  Civic club members noted that service gradually declined in both quality and quantity.  Individual burnout affects customers. 


Burnout, as defined by New York psychologist Herbert J. Freudenberger, PhD., “is a state of fatigue or frustration brought about by a devotion to a cause, a way of life, or a relationship that failed to produce the expected reward.”  This paper lists basic identification/symptoms of burnout, treatment options, and life style modifications. 


II.         Identification


The gold standard for evaluating burnout is the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI).  The MBI assesses three dimensions of the burnout syndrome: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment.  The MBI then correlate the scores from the three dimensions of burnout with other information obtained from respondent(s).  Respondent information includes job characteristics, job performance, personality or attitude measures, health information, and demographic variables. 


The onset of burnout is slow, often goes unrecognized, and undiagnosed until more severe indicators present themselves.  Onset may occur when unrealistic goals are set and when the individual or group is over-committed, or loses motivation.  David McClelland, in his “Relationship of Motivation to Probability of Success,” illustrates a decline in motivation as established goals exceed fifty percent.  The affected individual(s) or group gradually depletes their energy, enthusiasm, and motivation, which leads to loss of touch with reality.


Robert Miller, ND, of Gilead Industries, asserts that [the symptoms of] burnout begins with a life sorrow (excessive demands or traumatic events).  Dorothy Pennachio, in her article “Burnout:

Are you at risk?” claims that burnout occurs in three stages.  These stages are alarm (stress arousal), resistance (energy conservation), and exhaustion.  Managers should observe their employees for unusual irritability, negativity, frequent headaches, lowered self-esteem, and increased risk taking.  Severe burnout may result in suicide.


III.       Treatment Options


Treatment begins by recognizing the above symptoms and behavioral trends.  Next, the individual or manager needs to determine the root cause (real reason) for loss of motivation and enthusiasm.  Both the organization and individual/group must stop making excuses and admit there is a problem.  Avoiding isolation and talk about personal concerns and frustrations delays treatment.  Individuals need to reassess personal values and reestablish their personal relationships with their God.  Positive emotions and habits must replace negative emotions and habits.  Over commitments/obligations lead to burnout.  Learn to say no!


IV.              Life Style Modifications


Burnout can be serious enough to require additional intervention.  Initially this intervention involves reducing/minimizing stress in personal and professional lifestyles.  Increasing physical exercise and improving nutritional intake (diet) often provide positive changes.  Using guided imagery and/or sublingual messages to reprogram the mind is beneficial.  In more severe cases, a change of employment or relationship(s) may be necessary.  Finally, personal and professional achievements need consistent recognition and reward.


V.                 Summary


Burnout occurs when an individual or group loses control of their environment.  Onset of burnout is slow and the symptoms may be masked by or complicated by other factors, such as poor health.  Burnout affects the physical, emotional, and spiritual parts of the individual.  Symptoms listed in this paper are not inclusive, nor are the treatment methods.  Research continues to reveal additional symptoms and provide additional treatment measures.  The recommendations of this team are for the individual(s) or group (experiencing burnout) to return to their core values, reassess their life, and chart a new map for their future.  Remember interim goals allow for interim rewards.  A large success is usually the result of cumulative small successes.




Burnout Prevention and Recovery.  12 Jul. 2005.


Freudenberger, PhD, Herbert J.  Worterkaerungen – Burnout. 12 Jul. 2005.


Maslach, PhD., Christina. Test Developer profiles: The Maslach Burnout Inventory.  2001. 12 Jul. 2005.


McClellan, David. “The Relationship of Motivation to Probability of Success.”  Management of  Organizational Behavior.  8th Ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001.


Miller, Robert E.  Burned Out or Stressed Out? – Tranquilities for Persons Experiencing Stress.  12 Jul. 2005.


Neils, Henry.  MAPP-Motivational Appraisal of Personal Potential: 13 signs of Burnout and How to Help You Avoid It.  2003.  12 Jul. 2005.


Pennachio, Dorothy L.  Medical Economics: Burnout: Are you at Risk? 2005.  12 Jul. 2005.




Tips for motivation and avoiding de-motivating employees.

Allan Crooks, Darla Sansom, Callie Clark (TNU 2005)

1. Offer a strong work environment.  Organized, great lighting, spacious environment; adequate equipment; and occupied by people who care and who speak in an honest, sensible way. To make employees happy, their basic needs have to be met. To get the most effort out of an individual, a persons working environment must encourage those efforts.

2. Reward in a consistent and quick manner.  Inspirational “liberated” rewards given frequently can help to ensure that people stay motivated. To stay motivated a person must know and understand the process of cause and effect. When completing a task that has required maximum effort, an employee should be rewarded so they know where they stand.

3. Be a leader who inspires by action, not an authoritarian.  Take note of your employees’ troubles and help them succeed.  What is so hard about telling someone they are “doing a good job”? Why do managers have a hard time expressing their thoughts?

4. Make employees feel that their involvement is significant to the
company’s triumphs.
Unless I feel that my work and efforts are being recognized, I do not desire to work unless I know I make a difference. Influence and inspire your employees with small things that matter. Say kind words, send thank you notes, package of their favorite candy, remember their birthday. Show small acts of kindness by letting them know that they matter to you as the leader and to the organization.  Just make them feel remembered on occasion! It is not rocket science!

5. Recognize all employees.  Regardless of the level of involvement from the individual employee on any given task, always try to recognize the efforts that all employees contribute on a consistent basis regardless of how big or how small they might be. Make the employees feel like individuals as well as part of the group as a whole. It is very important to feel as though, even if it is work, there is equality in the company. Be someone’s friend and as a manager or supervisor, make them feel like they make a difference.

6. Be innovative.  Find new ways to acknowledge those employees who go the extra
mile. Create monthly or bi-monthly recognition days. For example: Find ways for the ones who over-achieve to receive a reward that they can carry until the next innovative idea or achievement is made. This effort can cause a competitive action to take place in group and team settings that stands to benefit everyone.  Don’t forget to reward and encourage the employees! Plants won’t grow without water; people won’t grow without encouragement!

7. Communicate effectively.  Knowledge is power. Always ensure that each person has an understanding of what is expected of him or her in his or her responsibilities. An employee must have clear expectations to reach their highest level of achievement for their set goals. Be concise and thorough. If you’re going to be a manager, learn to communicate with those you manage!

8. Make successes a big deal.  Commemorate the accomplishment of team goals with co-employees and supervision. What’s wrong with a good old fashioned pat on the back? Bragg on them a little, make them feel they’ve made a great accomplishment!

9. Provide valuable and competitive health coverage.  Employees take notice of health coverage policies offered to them. They understand that if their well-being and their families well-being are important to the organization that they are more than just a person providing a service for the organization. The employee will know they matter and their health is important to the organization. If you do not take care of your employees, they will not take care of you! Offer them the best that you can and let them know you are on your toes with their healthcare concerns. By not caring or by giving the impression of displacement, employers create animosity between themselves and others even if it is unintentional.

10. Put into operation an open-book management program.  Ensure trust and empowerment by allowing employees to view the organization’s financial records at will. This opportunity can build confidence between the employee and the company. The privilege can aid in igniting opportunities for the employee to get involved and excel with unlimited possibilities. When it all boils down, what is wrong with employees feeling as though they can trust you as a friend, not just an employer? Build relationship and trust with your employees and co-workers. Be personable; after all, you are making your living working with people. Learn to communicate properly! When management withholds information about a company, it creates walls between individuals with feelings of distrust and secrecy.



Tips on what managers Should not do to motivate employees.

Allan Crooks, Darla Sansom, Callie Clark (TNU 2005)

When trying to motivate your employees, there are some things that a manager could do that would have an opposite effect. I hope that these are obvious de-motivators for most of us.

1. Taking credit for an employee’s work.

When an employee does good work, it is the managers job to recognize that employee for their accomplishments.

2. Monitoring employees too closely.

Managers often make the mistake of micro-managing employees. While this can work for some employees, it can destroy trust and teamwork in others.

3. Not using the “red-hot stove” method of discipline.

A manager should treat everyone the same when it comes to discipline. Being inconsistent with discipline can also breakdown teamwork and trust.

4. Consistently asking employees to work late.

Working late can allow employees time to catch up on work, yet people need to have time outside of work that allows them to regroup for work the next day.

5. Dominating your employees with aggressive behavior.

A good manager needs to give direction and purpose, yet he or she does not need to be dominating or overly aggressive to get his or her point across.

6. Manipulating employees

There is a difference in persuading and manipulating an employee. A good manager will persuade an employee by guiding and encouraging.

7. Becoming dependent on employees and not being a leader.

Management of employees requires problem solving and facilitating. Managers should lead, not agree with everyone and show signs of resignation.

8. Avoiding problems with employees as to not hurt someone’s feelings.

As a manager, it is your responsibility to take charge and lead the team. If the manager tries to make everyone happy, the team can suffer.

9. Give an employee too much responsibility.

If you give a star performer too much responsibility, that employee may become overworked. A good manager will empower employees that perform well, but you do not want to an employee to burn out. Give responsibility a little at a time to allow that employee to become comfortable with their workload.

10. Asking the wrong person for advice in decision-making.

Asking the wrong person on how to do something will result in the wrong answer. An employee may sense that their talents are disregarded. A good manager should recognize which employees have the knowledge needed to make that decision.




5 Ways You Killed My Motivation

Anne Stills, Tania Rodriguez, Thomas Williams (TNU 2005)

      There are many reasons why an individual may be unhappy in the workplace. Several years of study and analysis have brought forth numerous management and motivational theories.  Unfortunately, many organizations continue to embrace an antiquated paradigm; therefore, fostering an environment of workers who are unmotivated, discouraged, and unhappy with their jobs.  Because of this, it would be easy to understand why many individuals began to act out their displeasure in the workplace.  Some workers may express feelings of hopelessness.  These feelings are fostered by the thought that they may not be able to find a better job (limited or lack of opportunity), or cannot afford to lose the one their current job.  For those who may posses a variety of skills or formal education, they may stick with the job hoping the environment will improve. While this act may be noble, a worker in this mindset should be aware that the constant stress could surely eat away at their desire and creative spirit.  In contrast, some workers may jump the gun too quickly.  For example, denial of a promotion after spending months working hard on a project creates feelings of rejection.  Your first instinct may be to quit without a moments thought. This is ill advised without a solid exit plan.

          Below are a few suggestions for those who may find themselves in an unhappy work environment:

     Remain professional.  No matter how bad you feel, do not allow yourself to slip into mediocrity. If you were "passed over" for that promotion, keep pumping out the same quality work you did prior to the decision.  Maybe that is the problem! Continue to be at work on time and do your job with enthusiasm, no matter how hard it may seem.

     Attitude.  This is tough but your attitude is everything!  Do not go to work angry, sullen, and dejected.  This is a sure cancer in any organization. Try this approach: each morning as you get in your car to drive to work, say a little prayer and request patience and wisdom.  Remind yourself daily that this situation is not forever and stay focused on your goals.

     Formulate a plan.  If you realize that the organization or workplace you are in is not the one for you, start formulating an exit strategy. This plan should include updating your resume’ and reestablishing contacts to spread the word that you are looking to make a move.  Also, assure the stability of your finances before you leave your present company.  You may require a few weeks cushion as you transition to another position.

            For those workers who feel trapped because of the lack of skills or opportunity, do not be afraid to reinvent your career by taking the following steps:  go back to school to earn a degree, take computer courses, or learn a language.  It is up to the individual to seek opportunity for self-improvement.

            Finally, all of us must understand that we have some control over our personal situation.  These simple suggestions will allow us our self-respect and to leave with our heads held high intact.  

The objective of this article is two-fold.  First, to encourage those employees who find themselves in unhappy work environments.  Second, this article gives managers/leaders a heads-up on possible errors they may be making that cause an unhappy work environment.


            Managers often make what they consider “real” attempts to motivate their employees; however, these attempts are often unsuccessful.  The unsuccessfulness of these attempts has contributed to many issues. As employees, we want to feel that we have purpose and that the organization has cared for us. The following are some common unsuccessful attempts to motivate employees:  small gifts, insincere thanks and praise, insignificant cash incentives, and the discouragement of fun at work.  Small gifts are gifts such as light up pencils, stress balls`, and clipboards.  These gifts are cute, but the bottom line is that they do not encourage and motivate employees.  All too often, managers give praise that is too frequent, too common, insincere, and not specific to the employee.  Giving praise in this manner diminishes the importance and sincerity of the compliment.  Organizations are also famous for trying to motivate employees with insignificant cash incentives. The management of the organization has not completely thought through these cash incentives.  For example, giving a five-dollar gift card for a ten-dollar item makes the employee feel as if they are not “worth” the full ten dollars.  Finally, employers and managers should encourage fun at work.  Employees are motivated most when they are happy to be at their job.  Happy employees are more likely to work faster and harder for their organization than unhappy employees are. 

 Number 1-motivation killer-Lack of purpose and/or meaning in the workplace

As employees, we MUST feel that the job we do is purposeful and important. We must feel that what we “do” at our jobs helps other people. There are many ways to accomplish meaning in the workplace, but the manager must find the one that is right for their organization.

Number 2- motivation killer-Professional career stagnation

We feel there are three situations that bring on career stagnation.  The three situations are as follows:  a lack of training and development, unchallenging work, and no variety in the job.  Many employees interpret a lack of learning and development in their job as a sign of their unimportance in the organization.  When the work becomes unchallenging, employees become disengaged.  When work is mundane with no variety, employees are sure to be unhappy and unmotivated. 

Number 3- motivation killer- Overworked and overstressed

If employees are overworked, they will automatically become overstressed.  As employee that has always worked in an understaffed work environment, I can attest to the above statement.  An understaffed work environment puts extra stress on every other employee to perform at a higher capacity.  Eventually if the employee cannot perform at this higher capacity, they will shut down and stop trying.  Without some sense of accomplishment with their work they WILL stop trying to achieve, and will ultimately lose their motivation.  

Number 4-motivation killer – Lack of Significant Incentives

Lack of adequate bonuses or raises: At the end of the year, as an employer, if you are sitting across the table about to give a twenty-five cent raise, save it, seems like the company needs it more. As an employee, there is nothing worse than feeling as if you receiving something just because the organization has to give you some incentive. 

Bad healthcare benefits: Paying too much for so little is depressing and discouraging.  No one likes to be sick, but if you are, it is nice to know you are protecting yourself to the best of your ability.  Healthcare benefits are too expensive; therefore, as an employer, the least you can do is have good healthcare coverage for your employees.

Insignificant gifts given to celebrate special occasions: You should know if your employee has a hobby, or a favorite pass time.

Number 5-motivation killer – Poor Management

Lack of human relation skills: It is not rocket science. Treat your employees, as you would want to be treated.  That means, no yelling, no put downs, and no derogatory comments.

Unqualified managers: If you as a manager do not know the process, ask someone who knows the process.  If you do not have all the information ask for the information.  If you do not know how to do something because it is new, pursue training.

No support from managerial staff: Do not ask us to fix something, change something or lead something and then bail on the team.  There is nothing worse than a manager who does not know the simple meaning of support.

 As employees, we have a few recommendations to managers; some are a matter of common sense. For instance, an increase in communication is a start. If our employers learned to let go of information and share the knowledge, they would find us as employees, a lot more cooperative. Develop our minds as well as our future paychecks and you will have on your hands a very happy employee. Managers, it is time that you plan and be strategic. Without strategic planning, all we do is spend the day putting out fires. As employees, we get tired of that approach.

            Finally, managers, do not be afraid to be the change agent within your organization.  Do not be afraid to listen to your workers because they are the ones on the front lines, and they understand what does and does not work.  An effective leader must adopt a situational leadership philosophy if he wishes to be successful and hopes that the organization will remain in business for the long haul.




How to Maintain and Motivate Workers 

BY Pam Gregory and  Samantha Shaw (TNU 2004) 

    When a company is in crisis, the problems are usually easy to identify, but hard to rectify. The first sign of trouble is poor morale among the workforce. This, of course, leads to other problems, such as low productivity and a high turnover rate. In some companies, dissatisfaction with working conditions or management style may also lead to union activity. 

    Often times, the management style is one of the root causes of these problems. Some companies are still trying to operate under a bureaucratic form of management, which does not work with today's knowledge based workforce. During World War II (WWII), American businesses introduced more procedures and control to help facilitate productivity among the unskilled replacement workers. After WWII, the workforce came home with the experiences and a comfort of operating by a military style or model. This model had a single, all-powerful, John Wayne Type leader who told everyone what to do with no input from the workforce. This model might have worked for our grandparent's generation. Muscle was king then and muscle powered the economy. People were used to taking orders and equated following orders with the security provided by a steady job. However, as work required more knowledge and education, the heavily controlled bureaucratic management style became more ineffective and created animosity among the workforce. 

    In this type of environment, today's workers feel threatened. When people feel threatened by management, they tend to think they need a third party to represent them. This is how union activity gets started. Management sometimes responds by using the confrontation method of treats and imitation to try to stop the union talk. When applied, the confrontation method gets immediate results. This method relies on treats and intimation to force change upon the workforce. The confrontation methods will backfire if used too frequently and the workforce will resist management in the end. 

    Soon, the corporate office decides that maybe management is the problem and starts a series of organizational changes. People at the mid to high management level start to lose their jobs within the company. This spurs a growing panic at the management level and people start leaving the company at a rapid pace. Comprising the technical and professional experience at the management level is sure to make the tension grow at the workforce level. The graph below shows how the high performing people are the first to leave the organization, therefore, the company loses its most talented and skill individuals first.


Craig Stevens First to Leave Model 

    Recognition for work performed on the job is one of the basic human needs. When people do the same routine duties every day it can have a demoralizing effect on their morale. Making people feel valued and improving morale is a difficult challenge at times, especially when budget money is tight. Recognizing employees throughout the year and not just at appraisal time is a step in the right direction. Small celebrations such as buying pizzas or donuts when small goals are accomplished add much to the morale of the workers. Another effective and inexpensive way to recognize and motivate people is to send an email to their supervisor praising them for a job well done. Praising people publicly is a very effective way to recognize employees who have gone beyond their normal job duties. Being generous with praise is an effective way to manage and motivate people. Praise in public, criticize in private is a good technique to practice. 

    One important piece of creating an atmosphere of appreciation is the sharing of information. When workers feel they are well informed about the affairs of their business, they are more involved and care about the future of the company. Establishing an informed workforce helps to rebuild trust in the management of the organization. 

    All good managers should understand that behavior and attitude affects others, especially the people who report to them. Barbara Glanz, an author, who has written many articles on improving morale in the workplace. In her article, "Rebuilding Trust in Turbulent Times," Glanz suggests that one way to help rebuild trust is to establish a CARE Package for the Workplace. Each letter in the acronym CARE stands for a specific interpersonal process to apply. C = Creative Communications, A = Atmosphere and Appreciation for All, R = Respect and Reason for Being, and E = Empathy and Enthusiasm. Applying values and practicing ethics in the workplace is Glanz's theory on management. 

    To get people to want to achieve business goals, as managers, we must get employees involved in the goal-setting process. People usually support ideas when they are a part of creating them. Without input from the employee's who do the hands on work, they will be less likely to become involved and will think management does not care about their opinion. Another aspect of setting goals is to listen to the employees' feelings and thoughts and to act upon them. Goals should be challenging and obtainable. People will not try as hard to achieve a goal if that feel it is not obtainable. Achieving a goal set by a person, a manager or as a group is an example of Hertzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory and Maslow's Hierarchy of needs; both include esteem as an important motivator and a step closer to self-actualization. 

    In the book, "Gung Ho!" Ken Blanchard and Sheldon Bowles speak to the importance of cheering others on. Their philosophy is that completing work, and keeping the team and each individual on the team in good spirits, requires cheering each other along the way. Cheering means to outwardly show the team their work is important and they are contributing to the company as a whole. A manager should send TRUE congratulations when cheering people. TRUE congratulations are Timely, Responsive, Unconditional, and Enthusiastic (pg 144). An easy way to remember the concept of motivation, cheering and goal-setting is by using E=mc2; enthusiasm equals mission times cash and congratulations (pg 138). 

Works Cited 

Blanchard, Ken, and Sheldon Bowles. Gung Ho! William Morrow & Company, 1998. 

Glanz, Barbara A. Rebuilding Trust in Turbulent Times. McGraw-Hill, 1996. 3 May 2004.

Stevens, C.A.; Jerry Westbrook; Jim Nichols; Joe Daily: "Step 2: Using The Westbrook Model for Understanding Organizational Elements That Drive Change," American Society of Engineering Management, 21st National Conference Proceedings, October 4-7, 2000. 

Stevens, C.A.; Normal Curve Compared to the most Common Mistakes in Downsizing Workforce. Graph. 


Pam Gregory is a native middle Tennessean who has enjoys the scenic hills and the peaceful country life. She has been married for 26 years to her high school sweetheart and they have two children, Laura age 17 and Evan age 10. Pam is currently employed at Gap Inc. as a Financial Analyst. Pam is currently enrolled in the Trevecca University MHR program and will receive her Bachelor of Arts in Management and Human Relations in December 2004. 

Samantha Shaw has over four years of experience in Human Resources and is currently seeking a job in the HR field. Her specialties include: Benefits, Employee Relations, Payroll, and Administrative duties. Samantha completed her Associate degree at Volunteer State Community College in 1998. Samantha has one son and three stepchildren. Samantha is currently enrolled in the Trevecca University MHR program and will receive her Bachelor of Arts in Management and Human Relations in December 2004. 

Special thanks to Professor Craig Stevens,,  for all his help with this project.




Article Found  by 

Trish Moore (TNU, Principles of Management 2005)

            According to an article written by Jason Gracia, “The Single Most Important Principal of Employee Motivation,” one of the most common reasons managers fail in motivating their employees is by using one “cookie cutter” method of motivating and rewarding all of their employees.  The article suggests that managers, in order to be successful, should put forth the time and effort to learn what things motivate their employees.

            According to the article, all employees are different and find motivation in different things.  Some employees find monetary rewards motivating while others find more inspired by acknowledgement of good job performance.  The article concludes that taking the time and concentrated effort to uncovering the motivators that drive individual employees is the best thing that one could do for his or her employees.

            This article supports many of the thoughts conveyed by the textbook.  The textbook states that managers must meet the needs and aspirations of his or her followers.  This would require the manager take the time to learn what sparks desire and motivation within each employee.  Chapter two of the assigned reading discusses goal-oriented behavior.  The text states that human behavior consists of a general motivation spawned from a desire to attain some specific result.  It further states that a manger must know which motives or needs of people evoke a certain action at a particular time.  As stated in the article selected, all employees have different motivators.  What motivates one employee may be completely insignificant to another.

The Single Most Important Principle of Employee Motivation 

by Jason Gracia


Managers around the world are committing a fatal error that is depriving their people and companies of improvement, progress, and success. While very few know of the dilemma, its solution is the most important and powerful principle that any coach or manager will ever learn.

Imagine stepping into an enormous Kitchen overflowing with uncooked meals and desserts. All of the necessary ingredients for a countless assortment of dinners are there - you simply have to prepare them.


Now imagine preparing and cooking them in identically the same way. It doesn't matter what meal you are dealing with - you follow one set of instructions without fail.

Perhaps your favorite meal is a thick and juicy hamburger. If you're actually preparing and cooking a hamburger, you're right on track. But what if you're dealing with ice cream sandwiches. How well do you think throwing some ice cream onto a grill would work? Trying to flip it so both side get evenly cooked?


The Great Management Mistake

Preparing and cooking ice cream in the same manner as a hamburger would obviously result in failure. You can't treat all ingredients and meals as the same thing - they are all different, requiring different methods and techniques to achieve their particular result.

The greatest management mistake should becoming painfully clear: many managers treat all employees as the same assortment of ingredients trying to motivate them toward greater success using one cookie-cutter approach.


Just as failure results from throwing ice cream on a grill, so too will a manager fail in inspiring his people if he attempts to do so using a single method.

The people on your team are as different as baked beans and apple pie. They each work from a unique set of motivators, responding to some with excited action and others with boredom or even anger.

It's up to you to discover what drives each one of your team members. What elements excite them? What elements turn them off? It may take a little time and concerted effort on your part, but uncovering the powerful motivators that drive your people will be the best thing you can do for you and your team.


Remember, you may respond to financial rewards or incentives, but that doesn't mean everyone on your team will share your sentiments. Listen to your people. Recognize and utilize their motivators. You are dealing with a wide assortment of ingredients, and following this principle will allow you to prepare each one with amazing success.


by Jason Gracia - Motivation123

Get your FREE Motivation123 Idea-Kit filled with over 50 quick and easy tips and ideas to help you get and stay motivated in an instant at the Motivation123 Web site.

Editors and publishers are free to reprint this article as long as it's reprinted in its entirety and the signature line remains intact.  Please direct a courtesy copy to


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Managing Stress while in the Storms of Chaos


Excellent Management

The Workshop


Building Leaders

Supervisor Skills

Project Management


Employee Retention

Customer Service


Problem Solving


Statistics (SQC)


Process Improvement

Performance Measures


Business Planning

OD Support




Industrial Engineering

Systems Engineering


Soft Skills


Stress Management

Body Language

Building Teams

Communication Conflict

Controlling Anger

First Impressions

Interpersonal Skills

Listening Skills




Training and Facilitation

Recent Workshops


Finding Investments


Grants Management




Connecting Investment Capital With Entrepreneurs and Sound Businesses


Business Art


Home of the

"B. Stone" Artists

from the

Geronimo Stone Series



Craig A. Stevens


Student Support


Classy Photos
UoP Students
Trevecca Students


Finding Investments


Grants Management




Connecting Investment Capital With Entrepreneurs and Sound Businesses


Interesting Projects



Water Hyacinth Project - Mission: Turn the Aquatic Weeds Problem into a Blessing.


email Craig Stevens

 for a password.


Faith-Based Support


Faith-Based Technical Assistance Center



Book 1

Book 2

Theresa Heflin

Love Letters From God


Books & POD Casts

 Coming Soon by WBS


WBS Books

and Materials



Geronimo Stone,

His Music, His Love, and  the Mobile of Excellent Management.




Buy Paperback

Buy Hardcover

Free Ebook



7 Attributes of Excellent Management Workshop



Geronimo Stone,

Vol 2,

The Storms of Chaos



"...and another thing!"  


Need Help Staying Awake During Work or Classes?




Because of Popular Demand

Here is Where you Can Get Craig's Energy Drinks


Healthy Chocolates



For Your Own


Business Call

Irene at

(615) 300-8531



Send Questions (or Good Answers) to  Copyrights © 2001-9.  Contact: Craig A. Stevens (COO) (615) 834-8838 

Westbrook Stevens, LLC, a Woman Owned Small Business.


Innovative Resources and Systems, a Service Disabled Veteran Owned Small Business. 


Our goal is for all we do to be Christ-centered and consistent with Judeo-Christian values.


"Guard against the impostures of pretended patriotism."

George Washington, Farewell Address, September 19, 1796