Your Online Center of  Excellence For Mastering Change in the 21st Century

 

Coming soon

Participate in a wiki site on

"Change Management and Systems" http://westbrookstevens.wetpaint.com/

Home ] Phase 1 - Excellent Management ] PM Support ] BA Support ] Applied Stats Support ] Phase 2 - Strategy ] Phase 3 - Drivers of Change ] Phase 4 - Systems Engineering ] Phase 5 - Change Management ] About_Us.htm ]

 

Site Map

of

Business Concepts

 

The 5 Phases of Mastering Change

 

Westbrook Stevens Linked Business Models

Symptom Checker

Research Links

Problem Solving Tools

 

The WBS Assistant

Newsletter


Phase 1

Phase 1

Excellent Management


Step 1 - Leadership

 

Vision & Mission
Situational Leadership
Christian Leadership

 

Step 2 - Culture

 

Lifelong Learning

Communicating

Diverse Culture

Written Communications
Gung Ho Culture
Conflict Management

Conflict Resolution

Building Relationships


Step 3 - Customer Focus

 

Step 4 - Team Building
 

Step 5 - Problems Solving

 

Business Analyst

Business Intelligence

Configuration Management

Flow Charts
Force Field
Genba Kanri

Lean
Project Management

Portfolio Management

PMO

Root Cause
Selection Tools

Statistical Tools

TRIZ


 

Step 6 - Continuous Improvement
 

Step 7 - Performance Measures

 

 

Project Goals by Process

Project Management

Empowerment Layers

Problems Solving

 1 to 1 Selection Tool

Flow Charts


Phase 2

 

 

Phase 2

Storms of Chaos

 

Step 1 - Waves

Forecasting Trends

 

Step 2 - Lightning

Managing Risks
 

Step 3 - Buoyancy

Building Relationships
 

Step 4 - The Storm

Winning Competition

 

Step 5 - The Ship

Leading Your Ship

 


Phase 3

 

 


Phase 3

Drivers of Change

 

Step 1 - External Environment
 

Step 2 - Building People

Human Resources

Step 3 - Organizational Structure

Step 4 - Internal Environment
 

Step 5 - Systems Thinking

 

Employee Retention

Future Organization


Phase 4

 

 

Phase 4

Systems Loops

 

Open System

 


Phase 5

 

 

Phase 3

3 Phases of Change

 

Step 1 - Before the Change

Step 2 - During the Change
 

Step 3 - After the Change

 

 

 

 

Element  3 of the Drivers of Change model:  Organizational Structures

 

By Craig A. Stevens and his students

 

The organizations structure is the way the company is organized to perform work. Symbolically in the Westbrook Stevens Drivers of Change Model the organization is the house-like structure and segregates the internal environment from the external environment. Implementing the structure can take many shapes.

 

Structural Design

There is no "one" right organizational structure! 

 

"There may not even be one right organizational structure in any one company. Chances are, if all your divisions look the same on the organizational chart you have a problem." (Craig A. Stevens, 1995) As a trend, we can see businesses changing, as Peter Drucker says, “from one best organization to multiple organization structures to accommodate the business environment.” 

Manager/Leaders/Executives should design and set organizations up to make things happen…the good things not the bad things. However, sometimes organizations are set up to achieve the opposite results.

 

Functional Organizations are great for mechanistic, repetitive work.  Some people want boundaries and at the end of the day work is over.  Divisional organizations structures are often better if the divisions are small.  However when divisions grow many times they become more functional and mechanistic.  The smaller more organic divisions often create work that is more enjoyable and meaningful.  This is important as one’s skill and competencies grow.  Often with knowledge workers, the work is never over and one can work extremely hard or do nothing and the leaders will not be able to tell the difference.  Therefore, more organic cultures and structures are a necessity for an enjoyable work environment and to retain highly skilled and/or professionals. 

 

Links to...

 

Organic vs Mechanistic

Structural Dilemmas 

Mintzberg's Structural Configurations

 

  • Division serves as base for  technological continuity



  • Disadvantages Functional Organization 

     

    • The client is not the focus of activity and concern

    • Advantages of a Pure Projectized Organizations

       

       

       

      YouTube Video OS1 -

       

       

      Figure OS7 Projectized Organizational Structure

      Figure OS8 Projectized Organizational Structure

       

      Figure OM2

       

       

       

      YouTube Video OS3 - Craig A. Stevens - POD 2 Cast on Organic Vs. Mechanistic Organizations

       

       

       

       

       

      Figure OM3

       


       

      Structural Dilemmas

       

       

      YouTube Video OS4 - Craig A. Stevens

      POD cast on Structural Dilemmas in Designing Organizations

       

       

       

      Bolman, Lee G. and Terrence E Deal, Reframing Organizations, Artistry, Choice and Leadership, 3rd Edition, Jossey-Bass, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2003

      Figure  SD1

      Figure  SD2

       

      Figure  SD3

       

      Higher degrees of differentiation is often found in more high-tech organizations.  Look at the levels of management, if the ranks are filled by people with different backgrounds, experiences, and years of experiences, then you have a high level of differentiation.  As a norm, products and services are becoming more complex.  As an example of product complexity, today we do not have as many pure mechanical or electrical products.  Things are becoming more Electro-Mechanical. Therefore not only is more differentiation required in the marketing and on a competitive or strategic level, but this also leads to more differentiation in the organizational design.

       

       

      YouTube Video OS5 - Craig A. Stevens - POD cast 2 on Structural Dilemmas in Designing Organizations

       

       

       

       

      Figure  SD4

      Figure  SD5

       

      YouTube Video OS6 -

      Craig A. Stevens - POD cast 3 on Structural Dilemmas in Designing Organizations

       

       

       

       

      Figure  SD6

      Figure  SD7

       

      The quality of the state of collaboration is very important.  How hard it is to work together is a complicated subject.  As it relates to organizational structural issues, if Differentiation is high, then Integration needs to also be high.  We will need more of a multidiscipline team.  This is a very dangerous thing for managers.  Because only the team knows if the formula we use is right and only after they have experienced the effects.  The leaders/managers must become more like referees or facilitators.  Managers have to respect the team and fairly call it as they see it.  However in low tech organizations, “chain of command” becomes more acceptable and logical.   

       

      Figure  SD8

       

      YouTube Video OS7 - Craig A. Stevens - POD cast 4 on Structural Dilemmas in Designing Organizations

       

       

       

       

      Figure  SD9

      Figure  SD10


       

      Figure SD11

      Figure SD12


       

      Mintzberg's Structural Configurations

       

       

      YouTube Video OS8 - Craig A. Stevens  - POD cast on Mintzberg's Organizational Configurations

       

       

       

      Mintzberg’s (1979),Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, N.J. as reported by Bolman, Lee G. and Terrence E Deal, Reframing Organizations, Artistry, Choice and Leadership, 3rd Edition, Jossey-Bass, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2003

      Figure M1

       

      Figure M2

       

      YouTube Video OS9 -

      Mintzberg On Operations as a part of Strategy

       

       

       

       

       

      Figure M3

       

      Figure M4

       

      Figure M5

       

       

       

      Figure M6

       

      Figure M7

       

      Often what happens when a division loses market share and starts to shrinks… management will move it back to a larger organizational unit.  This creates more problems and often creates more mechanistic controls which in turn may lower the probability of success.

       

      Figure M8

       

      Figure M9

       

      YouTube Video OS11 - Craig A. Stevens Intro on Organizational Structures

       

       

       

      Traditional Organizational Structures

       

      According to the AMA (1998) - 90% of Traditional Organizations Fall Into three types or a mixture of these three types.

      • Hierarchical/Functional

      • Matrix

      • Task Force

      Gary Dessler, in his book Organization Theory Integrating Structure and Behavior, defined three basic structures: 

      1. A "Functional Structure" which may be process oriented and more mechanistic. In a functional organization, revenue derives from operations [not projects].  Staff is grouped by specialty, which gives the employees one clear superior.  However they may still perform projects.  The Project Manager (PM) has little to no authority.  Therefore it is likely the PM is actually a more of a Project Coordinator.

      1.  A "Divisional Structure" which could be divided by products, geographical locations, or industry. A large division could look like a functional structure where a smaller division could be altogether different, being more organic in nature. 

      1. A "Matrix Structure" which is designed around projects. Each of these structures has significance in differing environments. Other writers also have described other organizational structures. 

      Dessler, Gary. Organization Theory Integrating Structure And Behavior." Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1995, p. 124.


      Functional Organizational Structures

       

      Figure OS1, Functional Organizations with a PM at staff level.

       

      Figure OS2, Functional Organizations with a PM under a a divisional manager and Team Matrixed (But Not. in a Matrix Organizations)

       

      Figure OS3, Functional Organizations with a PM under a a divisional manager.


       

      Advantages of Functional Organization

       

      • Maximum flexibility in the use of staff

      • Individual experts used by different projects

      • Specialists grouped to share knowledge and experience

      • Division serves as base for  technological continuity

      • Division is the normal path of advancement for individuals

      Meredith, J. R., & Mantel, S. J., Jr. (2000). Project management: A managerial approach (4th ed.) [UOP Special Edition Series]. New York: Wiley.

      Figure OS4 Dessler on Use of Functional Organization

       

       

       

      Gary Dessler, Organization Theory Integrating Structure and Behavior, Pg. 124, Prentice-Hall, Inc. New Jersey, 1995

       


       

      Disadvantages Functional Organization 

       

      • The client is not the focus of activity and concern

      • Division tends to be oriented toward the activities particular to its function

      • Occasionally, no individual is given full responsibility for the project

      • There are often several layers of management between the project and the client

      • There is a tendency to suboptimize the project

       

      Figure OS5 Dessler on Functional Organization


       

      Projectized Organization

       

      Figure OS6 Projectized Organizational Structure

       

      Advantages of a Pure Projectized Organizations

       

      Figure OS7 Projectized Organizational Structure

      Figure OS8 Projectized Organizational Structure

       

      Disadvantages of a Pure Projectized Organizations

       

      Figure OS9 Projectized Organizational Structure


       

      Matrix Organizational Structures

       

      Figure OS10 Matrix Organization 

       

       

      Advantages of Matrix Organizations

      Figure OS11 Matrix Organization 

       

      Figure OS12 Matrix Organization 

       

       

      Disadvantages of Matrix Organizations

       

      Figure OS13 Matrix Organization 

       

      Figure OS14 Matrix Organization 

       

       

       

       


       

      What About the Organizational Driven

       Culture Issues?

       

      Any structure involving knowledge workers and/or high technology must be organic and not mechanistic.

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

      What Organization Fits What Environment?

       

       

       

      What do I think will Change?????

       

       

       

      Craig's Virtual, Extreme, Organic Organizational 

      Structure of the 21 Century....and to Infinity and Beyond. 

       

       

      So, I got a little carried away. Click on the slide below to see it explained.

      Link to The Organizational Structure of the 21st Century

       

       

      Looks funny...but is very similar to SAIC's (a 50,000 person employee owned company) vision.

       

       

      Organizational Structures Links:

       

      http://sos.state.mt.us/css/BSB/Org_Structures.asp (found by Josiah Wedgewood, UoP 2005)
      http://www.analytictech.com/mb021/orgtheory.htm (found by Josiah Wedgewood, UoP 2005)

  • Sponsors and Services

    Microsoft Partner Service and Products

     

    MS Partner Services

    MS Products Discounts

     

     

    Training/Consulting  Support

     

    Successful Change

     

    Project Management

    PMP Training

    Basic PM

    Advanced PM

    PMO Development

    PM Support

     

    Business Analysis

    BA Basics

     

    Strategic Planning

    Configuration Management

    Value Engineering Change Management

    Future Organizations

    Risk Management

    Audit Support

     

    Managing Stress while in the Storms of Chaos

     

    Excellent Management

    The Workshop

     

    Building Leaders

    Supervisor Skills

    Project Management

    Motivation

    Employee Retention

    Customer Service

     

    Problem Solving

    Improvement

    Statistics (SQC)

    Productivity

    Process Improvement

    Performance Measures

     

    Business Planning

    OD Support

     

    Engineering

     

    Industrial Engineering

    Systems Engineering

     


    Soft Skills

     

    Stress Management

    Body Language

    Building Teams

    Communication Conflict

    Controlling Anger

    First Impressions

    Interpersonal Skills

    Listening Skills

     

    Enter-Tain-Ment

     

    Training and Facilitation


    Training
    Facilitation
    Recent Workshops
    Schedule

     


    Finding Investments

     

    Grants Management

    Glossary

    Workshops

     

    Connecting Investment Capital With Entrepreneurs and Sound Businesses

     


    Business Art

     

    Home of the

    "B. Stone" Artists

    from the

    Geronimo Stone Series

     

     

    Craig A. Stevens

     


    Student Support

     

    Classy Photos
    UoP Students
    Trevecca Students
     

     


    Finding Investments

     

    Grants Management

    Glossary

    Workshops

     

    Connecting Investment Capital With Entrepreneurs and Sound Businesses

     


    Interesting Projects

     

     

    Water Hyacinth Project - Mission: Turn the Aquatic Weeds Problem into a Blessing.

     

    email Craig Stevens

     for a password.

     


    Faith-Based Support

     

    Faith-Based Technical Assistance Center

     


     

    Book 1

    Book 2

    Theresa Heflin

    Love Letters From God

     



    Books & POD Casts


    www.bizpods.mobi

     Coming Soon by WBS

     

    WBS Books

    and Materials

     

     

    Geronimo Stone,

    His Music, His Love, and  the Mobile of Excellent Management.

     

     www.Geronimo

    Stone.com

     

    Buy Paperback

    Buy Hardcover

    Free Ebook

     

     

    7 Attributes of Excellent Management Workshop

     

     

    Geronimo Stone,

    Vol 2,

    The Storms of Chaos

     


     

    "...and another thing!"  

     

    Need Help Staying Awake During Work or Classes?

     

    711821

     

    Because of Popular Demand

    Here is Where you Can Get Craig's Energy Drinks

     


    Healthy Chocolates

     

     

    For Your Own

    Chocolate

    Business Call

    Irene at

    (615) 300-8531

     

     

    Send Questions (or Good Answers) to Customer_Service@westbrookstevens.com.  Copyrights © 2001-9.  Contact: Craig A. Stevens (COO) (615) 834-8838 

    Westbrook Stevens, LLC, a Woman Owned Small Business.

     

    Innovative Resources and Systems, a Service Disabled Veteran Owned Small Business. 

     

    Our goal is for all we do to be Christ-centered and consistent with Judeo-Christian values.

     

    "Guard against the impostures of pretended patriotism."

    George Washington, Farewell Address, September 19, 1796