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Phase 1

Phase 1

Excellent Management


Step 1 - Leadership

 

Vision & Mission
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Step 2 - Culture

 

Lifelong Learning

Communicating

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Building Relationships


Step 3 - Customer Focus

 

Step 4 - Team Building
 

Step 5 - Problems Solving

 

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TRIZ


 

Step 6 - Continuous Improvement
 

Step 7 - Performance Measures

 

 

Project Goals by Process

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Phase 2

 

 

Phase 2

Storms of Chaos

 

Step 1 - Waves

Forecasting Trends

 

Step 2 - Lightning

Managing Risks
 

Step 3 - Buoyancy

Building Relationships
 

Step 4 - The Storm

Winning Competition

 

Step 5 - The Ship

Leading Your Ship

 


Phase 3

 

 


Phase 3

Drivers of Change

 

Step 1 - External Environment
 

Step 2 - Building People

Human Resources

Step 3 - Organizational Structure

Step 4 - Internal Environment
 

Step 5 - Systems Thinking

 

Employee Retention

Future Organization


Phase 4

 

 

Phase 4

Systems Loops

 

Open System

 


Phase 5

 

 

Phase 3

3 Phases of Change

 

Step 1 - Before the Change

Step 2 - During the Change
 

Step 3 - After the Change

 

 

 

This page is under construction!

 

The Implementation/Execution Phase of the Project

 

During the Implementation Phase of a project you have to 

  1. Manage a Team of People

  2. Develop a monitoring system to control schedule, resources, and expected outcome.

  3. Demonstrate evaluation and review techniques of cost management systems.

  4. Manage and Lead

 


PMP Execution Phase Chart 8

 

 

1.24.1.D - Work Performance Information (WPI)

 

Work Performance Information is a primary input into controlling processes.  WPI is a general term for any and all information regarding the status of project activities and deliverables and may include:

·       Start and end dates of completed schedule activities,

·       Start date, % complete and estimated completion dates of incomplete activities,

·       Quality metrics of completed deliverables,

·       Actual and current estimated costs of completed and in-progress activities and deliverables,

·       Resource utilization, and

·       And anything else you can think of.


 

1.25.0.D -- Manage and Control Project Work

 

Earned Value Management (or Earned Value Technique):

 

Earned Value Management (EVM) is a tool use in the Manage and Control Project Work Process and is also known as Earned Value Technique.  The concept of value to the customer is expressed in work, time, and Cost.   The work of the project (deliverables) represents “value” to the buyer (customer, sponsor).  Value is determined at project start (budget).  EVM assesses progress of deliverables against the agreed to schedule and cost. The “formulas” are part of the PMP Exam. 

 

On chart: PV = BCWS and AC = ACWP

 

Budgeted At Completion (BAC) (as used for the PMP):

BAC  is derived by looking at the total budget cost for the project and tells the PM the original planned cost for this project.  Also known as BCAC or Budgeted Cost at Completion.

 

Example:  The project is for 20 fast computers at $5,000 a computer.  The BAC = 20 x $5,000.oo = $100,000.oo. 

 

Budgeted At Completion (BAC), or Total Project Budget, or Budgeted Cost at Completion (BCAC) = $100k

Planned Value (PV) (as used for the PMP):

PV  tells the PM how much  work should have been completed at a point in time based on the plan.  PV is the planned percentage complete times (x) the BAC.  PV is also know as BCWS or Budgeted Cost of Work Scheduled.

 

Example:  The project plan was to have 14 computers completed by today which is 70% complete therefore PV = 70%  x $100,000.oo = $70,000.oo. 

 

Planned Value (PV) or Budgeted Cost for Work Scheduled: BCWS = $70,000

Actual Cost (AC) (as used for the PMP):

AC tells the PM how much money has been spent during a given period of time.  AC is calculated by the sum of costs for the given period of time.  Also known as ACWP or Actual Cost of Work Performed.

 

Example:  The project has use 85% of the funds available or $85,000.  Therefore AC = $85,000.oo. 

 

Actual Cost (AC) or Actual Cost for Work Performed (ACWP) = $85k

Earned Value (EV) (as used for the PMP):

EV tells the PM how much work was actually been completed during a given point in time.  It is derived by measuring where the project is in terms of work completed based on the point in time on the schedule.  Also know as BCWP or Budgeted Cost of Work Performed.

 

Example:  The project is 60% complete (don't worry it is just pretend - 12 computers have been built) therefore EV = 60%  x $100,000.oo = $60,000.oo. 

 

 Earned Value (EV) or Budgeted Cost for Work Performed (BCWP) = $60,000.oo

 

On the chart:  BAC = BCAC = $100K; AC = ACWP = $85K;

EV = BCWP = $60K; PV = BCWS = $70K

SV = $-10K; CV = $-25K


 

Three of the Types of Variances Used in Earned Value Analysis:

 

Schedule Variance (SV) (as used for the PMP):

SV tells the PM the difference between where the plan says should be and where we are in the schedule. 

 

SV = EV - PV.

 

Example:  The EV = $60K and the PV = $70K, Therefore the SV = $60K - $70K = $-10K.  Not good (late is negative).  Note, time is measured in dollars.

Cost Variance (CV) (as used for the PMP):

CV tells the PM the difference between what the plan say is should have cost us and how much we actually spent. 

 

CV = EV - AC.

 

Example:  The EV = $60K and the AC = $85K, Therefore the CV = $60K - $85K = $-25K.  Not good (late is an overrun).  Note, this time dollars is measured in dollars.


 

Performance Indices to Assess Project’s Progress:

Here variances are also formulated as ratios rather than differences.  Good when comparing different projects.

Schedule Performance Index (SPI ) (as used for the PMP):

 SPI is the rate at which the project performance is meeting schedule expectations at a point in time. 

 

SPI = EV/PV

 

Example:  The EV = $60K and the PV = $70K, therefore the SPI = 60/70 = .86 (less than one is not good).

Cost Performance Index (CPI) (as used for the PMP):

CPI is the rate at which the project performance is meeting cost expectations at a point in time.

 

CPI = EV/AC

 

Example:  The EV = $60K and the AC = $85K, therefore the SPI = 60/85 = .71 (less than one is not good).

Cumulative CPI (CPI C) (as used for the PMP):

The Cumulative CPI is the rate at which the project performance is meeting cost expectations From the Beginning up to a point in time.  It is best done with a table of all the measures over time (i.e., weekly/monthly).  It is also use to forecast project costs at completion.

 

CPI C = Cumulative EV /Cumulative AC

 


On The Chart: EAC = FCAC; ETC = FCTC

 

Estimate At Completion (EAC) (as used for the PMP):

EAC projects the total cost at completion based on project performance up to a specific date. 

 

EAC = BAC/Cumulative CPI . 

Estimate To Completion (ETC) (as used for the PMP).

ETC projects future spending on the project based on past performance. 

 

ETC = EAC - AC

Variance At Completion (VAC) (as used for the PMP)

VAC is the difference between what was budgeted and what will actually be spent.

 

VAC = BAC - EAC


 

Other Measures

  • Accounting Variance (AV) = PV - AC

  • STWP - scheduled time for work performed

  • ATWP - actual time of work performed

  • TPI (Time Performance Index) = STWP / ATWP

 


 

Control Accounts:

 

Control Accounts are management control points where scope, budget, actual cost and schedule are integrated and compared to earned value for performance measurement.  It would take too much time and money to do Earned Value Analysis for every work package.  So only critical parts of the project WBS will be monitored & controlled using EVA.  The Control Account Plan (CAP) documents places on the WBS where caps will be applied to scope, schedule, and budget amounts on all of the WBS identified control points.

 


PMP Chart 9

2.0 - Scope Management:

 

Scope Management includes project as well as product scope.  Poor scope management is a primary cause in project schedule and budget overruns.  Ensuring the project includes all the work and only the work required to be successful.  The project scope should be:

1.     Documented

2.     Well defined

3.     Clearly understood

4.     Achievable

Shortcuts in this knowledge area are most dangerous therefore Project Managers must identify, validate, verify scope and influence and control changes as they occur.

 


 

2.27.0.P  Scope Control

 

Performance Reports

 

Performance Reports are the compilation, analysis, summarization & presentation of project results and are outputs of Performance Reporting.

 

2.27.1.D - New Project Work (NPW):

 

Additional work on the project may be a result of the following items. Each of the following must be processed in the sequence below:

1.     Recommended

2.     Approved

3.     Implemented

Change Requests:

 

Are requests to modify the project (including product) scope, processes, plan, policies, procedures, costs, budgets or schedule.

 

Corrective Action:

 

Any activity taken as a result of a variance from the PM Plan that will bring future results in line with the plan.

 

Preventative Action:

 

Any activity that can reduce the probability of negative consequences associated with project risks.

 

Defect Repair:

 

Activity resulting from identification of a defect in a project component. Involves repair of the defect or replacement of the component.

 

The Concept of Triple Constraints:

 

There are three very important parts to a project, Time, Cost, and Functionality. (or some say Scope or Performance/Technology).  Change to any one aspect will effect at least one other (quality, customer satisfaction, or risk may also be effected).  When Scope is in question, do what is best for the customer with all other things being equal.  However, a good rule to follow may be this.  If a customer wants to change one constraint always control of the other two constraints. 

 

Harold Kerzner, Project Management, A systems approach to Planning Scheduling and Controlling, Seventh Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2001

 

PMP Chart 10

 

3.29.0.P - Schedule Control:

 

The Schedule Management Plan:

 

The Schedule Management Plan was produced during the Develop Project Management Plan Process.  It guides execution of all time management processes and may include:

  • Network diagramming instructions

  • Rules for dependency determination

  • Precision level required for duration estimates

  • Scheduling units (i.e. hours, days, weeks, etc.)

  • Process for managing schedule changes/updates Time

 

Schedule Change Control System:

 

Procedures by which the project schedule may be changed including documentation, tracking systems, and approval level.

 

Performance Measurement:

 

Performance measures include using metrics such as SV and SPI to determine if project is with acceptable performance tolerances.  Helps identify variances before they create major project impacts.  Also go to see the seven steps to performance measures.

 

Variance Analysis:

 

A variance is a deviation from the expected or planned event.  The variance analysis is comparing planned schedule dates vs. actual start and finish dates and investigating the cause and impact of the deviation.

 

Progress Reporting:

 

Providing information to project stakeholders should be presented in a consistent format to facilitate periodic comparisons.  The progress reports will include measures such as:

·       Actual start/finish dates

·       Remaining duration

·       Percent complete


 

4.30.0.P -- Cost Control:

 

Performance Measurement Analysis:

 

Performance measurement analysis is a tool used in the Cost Control Process for developing key values for monitoring and controlling each schedule activity, work package or control account (e.g. PV, EV, AC, ETC, CV, SV, CPI, SPI).  It helps assess the magnitude of any variance.  This is important for the project manager must determine the cause of any variance.

  

Forecasting:

 

Forecasting is a tool of the Cost Control Process for making estimates or predictions about the projects future based on information available at the time of the forecast.

 

Project Performance Reviews

 

Project Performance Reviews are meetings to assess the progress of schedule activities, work packages, or control accounts.  The reviews often use variance analysis, trend analysis or earned value techniques.

 

Cost Estimate Updates:

 

Cost Estimate Updates are outputs of the Cost Control Process that explain any change in cost information used to manage the project.  Appropriate stakeholders should be notified because some changes may drive adjustments to project scope, schedule, quality, staffing.

 

 Cost Baseline Updates:

 

Cost Baselines Updates are outputs of the Cost Control Process.  Cost Baselines are generally updated only in response to an approved changes in project scope. For large variances may required rebaselining.

 


 

PMP  Chart 11

 

 

PMP Chart 13

 

8.0 -- Communication Management:

 

The communication management knowledge area includes processes to address the timely and appropriate generation, collection, distribution, storage, and retrieval of project information.  It includes communication with all stakeholders (but especially project team, senior management, customer and sponsor).  Some say it is the most important skill for a PM to have.  PM spend up to 90% of their time communicating and therefore PMs must communicate:

  • Directly (always deal with the problem)

  • Truthfully (the whole truth)

  • Accurately (even if you don’t believe it)
     

 

 

 

 

PMP Chart 14

 

PMP Chart 15

From the words of Jerry Westbrook 

"The Number One Enemy of Good Quality Are the Words,

 I Think and I Know."

 

 

  1. Team Problem Solving

  2. Conflict

  3. Designing Performance Measures and Metrics

  4. Reporting PowerPoint Presentation (From Book)

Records Management and Communications:

 

 

Communication Records web link  Website Owner; Internal Revenue Service http://www.irs.gov/irm/part1/ch12s49.html,

This website explains records management and descriptions and authorities for communication records management.

Frank Merrell, UoP 2005

 

 

Managing Change Discussion

 

 

 

Implementation (Execution) Phase

By Ulysses M. Minor (MBA Student, UoPhx, 2007)

 

Definition

 

            The Implementation phase involves executing the tasks outlined in the Planning phase.  As the phase unfolds, establishing control methods that compare the planned and actual project outcomes are necessary to ensure that the project meets time, budget, and resource constraints.  The project manager must report the variances found to the project team and stakeholders to maintain project integrity.  Furthermore, the project manager must work closely with all involved to design action plans that address the variances so that the project can maintain its scope or readily adapt to any unpredicted scope changes.  A sample checklist that a project manager may use to track a project during this phase follows:

 

Action Items:  Common PLC Project

Version 6.0  12-11-03

 

Item #

Description

Who

Date Assigned

Date Due

Status

Date Closed

1

Send Division1 process docs to Person1

(responsible person name here)

8-2

8-3

Done

8-3

2

Send email list for each location to Person1

8-2

8-3

Done

8-3

3

Send time/cost quote to Person3

 

8-2

8-6

Done

8-3

4

Set up email team distribution list

 

8-2

8-15

Done

10-28

5

Distribute materials for PDR

 

8-2

8-6

Done

8-6

6

Investigate electronic setup for PDR

 

8-2

8-7

Done

8-7

7

Schedule conference room for PDR

 

8-2

8-7

Done

8-7

8

Investigate cost of 11x17 PLC poster printing, and big conference room poster creation

 

8-2

8-17

$2 each in color for 11x17; $200+ for 4x3 foam-board

8-17

9

Revisit DDR dates - make sure not too aggressive for proper Division2 review

 

8-2

8-8

DONE. See updated project plan- now 8-20

8-8

10

Talk to Pubs about needs, staff availability, recommend how to handle binder creation

 

8-2

Now

9-12

Done- Person1 doing updates

10-5

11

Decide offline how want to deploy PLC in Division3 as relates to cross functional groups.

 

8-2

9-15

Person3: has Div3 conceptual buy-in, wants them to review QuickRef

11-08

 

12

Add someone from Mfg to team list and distribution

 

8-2

8-24

Done

8-24

13

Consider a special mtg to walk cross-functional reps through PLC framework

 

8-2

8-14

Decision: groups will handle as part of deployment

8-20

upd 9-5

14.

Distribute draft of "cheat sheets" for different types of projects

 

8-8-01

8-15-01

Done

8-17-01

 

Item #

Description

Who

Date Assigned

Date Due

Status

Date Closed

15.

Make sure cheat sheets and minimum deliverables lists, etc. incorporate "best practices" as called for in our Vision. Reference lessons learned meeting

 

 

(responsible person name here)

8-22

8-29

Done

8-29

16.

Decide how many conference room wall boards we'll create

 

8-20

9-5

Done – send them the file, they will make their own

9-5

17

Email approval of final Quick Ref (received 9-12), or send email ASAP if another review meeting is needed

 

 

9-5

9-14-01

Done

9-28

18

As part of deployment for Div3-- get binders made up for software and hardware groups

 

 

11-13

In time for courses in Div3, to be scheduled

First run made by 11-20 for software PLC class. Second run completed 12-12 for hardware PLC course. To be distributed by 12-14

12-12

19

Send Div2 the electronic PLC Files or let them know where to get it online.

 

 

11-13

12-17

 

 

(Table from www.projectconnections.com, 2006, p.1).

 

Implementation        

 

Project Monitoring System

 

            Much of the success a project may enjoy does not lie in executing the tasks, but in monitoring the effect that the executed tasks yield.  An effective project monitoring system helps the Implementation phase achieve its maximum potential.  Gray and Larson contend, “A project monitoring system involves determining what data to collect; how, when and who will collect the data; analysis of the data; and reporting current progress” (Gray and Larson, 2005, p.411).  Metrics set by the project team determines data collection.  The team should design a system or use a software package that helps collect and analyze this data.  In terms of reporting, the following format addresses the major reporting concerns of this phase:

 

§  Progress since last report

§  Current status of project

o   Schedule

o   Cost

o   Scope

§  Cumulative Trends

§  Problems and issues since last report

o   Actions and resolutions of earlier problems

o   New variances and problems identified

§  Corrective action planned (Gray and Larson, 2005, p.412). 

 

If the team masters this system, the project control process becomes easier and more visible. 

 

Project Control Process

 

            Project Control Process (PCP) is the act of evaluating actual project performance against the set plan to find deviations, evaluate alternate action courses, and implement the corrective action.  This process involves the following steps:

 

  • Setting a Baseline Plan- Setting a baseline plan gives the blueprint of the project and yields a reference point.  The cost and duration information in the work breakdown structure (WBS) comprises this plan.

  • Measuring Progress and Performance- This objective measures time, budget and resources.  Using the Earned Value System gives substance to this objective. 

  • Comparing Plan against Actual- The most important function of this objective is to allow enough time between reports to detect variances that may change the course of the project. 

  • Taking Action- Reacting to variances sometimes resulting in changing the scope of baseline plan (Gray and Larson, 2005, p.413).    

 

Using the Earned Value System

 

            So far, the systems introduced to monitor time and budget are functional yet cannot yield their full potential without integration.  The Earned Value System (EVS), developed by the U.S. Department of Defense, attempts to overcome the ineffectiveness of using non-integrated systems to monitor progress.  Gray and Larson contend, “Without time-phasing of costs to match scheduled activities, cost control cannot yield information that is reliable for control purposes” (Gray and Larson, 2005, p.417).

 

            The project budget baseline, which consists of the time-phased costs, gives the EVS its starting point, the planned value (PV).  This information can help the project manager make comparisons between actual and planned schedule using the notion of earned value.  Data derived from the WBS, project network and schedule provides the bulk of the information used by the system.  As a result, the system produces cost and schedule variances, which is useful for determining project outcome and status.  Using this system affords the project manager the flexibility of monitoring the project at any time, which gives the entire project agility and momentum.

 

            The driving force behind the EVS is the Percent Complete Rule.  This rule assigns costs to the baseline and establishes milestones across the work package, then attaches completion percentages in dollars (Gray and Larson, 2005, p.421).  For instance, a factory measures progress by each a box of goods processed at a rate of $10 in labor per box.  At the end of the day, the factory manager can determine labor and production by either looking at boxes produced or by the labor dollars used.  Then, the manager compares the actual results to the planned budget and makes any necessary adjustments.

 

Analyzing Variances

 

            A project manager must understand the variances in order to take action.  Positive variances mean that the project is going well, while negative variances indicate problems.  Determining variance involves comparing earned value with schedule value, and comparing earned with actual costs.  The schedule and cost variances (SV and CV) can be determined by assessing planned cost (PV), budgeted cost of completed work (EV), and actual cost of work completed (AC). 

 

CV shows whether costs exceeded or fell short of planned costs.  SV indicates the progress of the work packages in WBS in relation to their scheduled dates.  Dollars are the SV unit instead of time (Gray and Larson, 2005, p.421).  Project managers must ensure that the SV does not determine the timeliness of the critical path.  Only comparing planned and actual schedules makes this determination.  In addition, using Cost Performance Index (CPI = EV/AC) and Scheduling Performance Index (SPI = EV/PV) determine the efficiency for each element. 

 

Relation to the Project

 

            According to Donald Geigrich, using project control helps to identify precursors to following items that impact cost, schedule and quality on a construction project:

 

  • Delays and Schedule Changes

  • Design difficulties

  • Payment irregularities

  • Scope changes

  • Unsatisfactory quality of work

  • Slow completion of work

  • Owner actions

  • Performance of project personnel

  • Lack of teamwork

  • Disputes and claims (Geigrich, 2002, p.2.1)

 

The most threatening of these is scope changes.  The year 2007 will see building materials cost, other than lumber, rise 6 to 8 percent, which economist believe to be twice the rate of inflation (www.kansas.com, 2007, p.5).  Through 2006, the price increase for these materials caused many industries to halt or trim down the scope of their construction projects (www.alaskanjournal.com, 2007, p.9).  However, managing the execution phase using the tenets described above will help create a strategy to decrease the likelihood of major scope changes caused by unforeseen conditions such as price increases in mid-project.

 

Summary    

 

            The Implementation phase carries out the objectives outlined in the Planning phase.  Creating an Integrated Project Monitoring System helps the project manager monitor time and resources used, and report the findings to the team and stakeholders. Using the Earned Value System helps identify variances between the actual and scheduled plans.  Finally, analyzing the variances and taking action helps reduce the likelihood of making major changes to the project scope. 

 

 

 

References

 

Giegerich, D. B. (2002). Early warning signs of troubled projects. Transactions of AACE

International, 02.

Gray, C.F. and Larson, E.W. (2005).  Project Management:  The Managerial Process.  3rd

Ed.  McGraw-Hill.

www.alaskanjournal.com. (2007).  Construction spending predicted to jump to $7B in

’07.  Retrieved February 24, 2007 from

http://www.alaskajournal.com/stories/021107/hom_20070211005.shtml.

www.kansas.com. (2007).  Lumber costs fall; other building materials rise.  Retrieved

February 24, 2007 from http://www.kansas.com/mld/kansas/business/16467881.htm.

www.projectconnections.com (2007).  Execution phase checklist.  Retrieved February 24,

2007 from www.projectconnections.com.

 

 

 



 

  

Implementation Phase

 

Tasha Palmer (MBA Student, UoPhx 2007)

 

After the planning phase is complete, the team is ready to start implementing their project.  Implementing their project refers to the final process of moving the solution from development status to production status (www.lifecyclestep.com).  This is where the project is developed and where the team will spend most of their time.  One of the most important things in the implementation phase is discipline.  Discipline is important in executing the tasks from the planning phase.  Without discipline, it is difficult to stay on schedule and within budget. 

           

In order for the team to be successful in implementing their project, the project must identify four critical processes.  The processes are change management, risk management, performance measures, and a phase review.  Each process is important in order to achieve the outcome desired. 

 

Change management is important because of the many changes that occur in the business environment.  By having an effective change management process, the manager can decrease the impact of any changes, identify risks due to change, and control the costs.  The team can accomplish all of these things by following the processes of change management. 

 

Process 1: Identify Change

The first step to making changes is identifying what they are.  Once the project manager identifies the changes, a team member will record and describe the impacts of the change.

 

Process 2: Review Change

This step consists of reviewing the impact and identifying the reason for change.  While reviewing, the project manager will determine if the change will affect the delivery of the project.  If so, the project manager will have to seek approval to make the changes. 

 

Process 3: Approve Change

During this step, the project board determines whether the team should move forward.  They make the decision based on the level of risk, impact, benefits, and costs that the change has on the project (www.method123.com ). 

 

Process 4: Implement Change

In the last step of change, the project manager approves and changes and the project continues.  After implementing the change, the manager will evaluate the effects the change had on the project.  They want to make sure that they achieved their desired outcome. 

 

Risk Management is important because it helps us find ways to manage events that will negatively affect the financial, physical, or human capital of an organization (www.army.mil).  Risk management can prevent business risks such as:

  • financial risks

  • process risks

  • time risks

  • human risks (loss of a knowledgeable and skilled individual)

  • legal risks or

  • physical risks (loss of equipment), etc ( www.army.mil )

 

In order to prevent these risks, it is imperative to develop good prevention strategies.  A good strategy will prevent or minimize the impact it will have on a project. 

 

Performance Measures give life to the mission, vision, and strategy by providing a focus that lets each employee know how they contribute to the success of the company and its stakeholders’ measurable expectations (Artley, Stroh, 2002).  It develops measurable indicators to track and evaluate progress in achieving goals, providing feedback, and gaining insight to management. One the measurable indicators that project managers use is the monitoring system.  The monitoring system will help the manager track their team’s progress.  They will be able to determine the:

  1. Effectiveness- Is the team doing the right things?

  2. Efficiency- Is the team doing thing correctly?

  3. Quality- Is the team meeting the standards?

  4. Timeliness- Is the project on schedule?

  5. Productivity- Is the team being productive in their tasks?

 

By using these performance measures, the project manager will know how well the project is going, if they are meeting their goals, if improvements are necessary, etc.  Not only are performance measures important, but the communication of them are critical.  It is important for the project manager to inform their team on their expectations.  They can accomplish by having a meeting, a conference call, through email, etc.  Whatever it takes to get the job done, they should do.  Performance measures are an asset to a project.  They keep everyone focused on accomplishing the task 

 

Phase Review ensures that all of the required tasks are complete.  After the review, the project manager will determine if the project is ready to close.  If the team completes the above steps, then their chances of achieving a successful project delivery are high. 

 

References:

 

www.lifecyclestep.com (2003-2005).  Implement.  Retrieved on February 26, 2007 from            http://www.lifecyclestep.com/open/450.0Implementation.htm

www.method123.com (2006).  Performing Change Management.  Retrieved on February            27, 2007 from http://www.method123.com/articles/2006/12/11/ChangeManagement/

www.army.mil (2007).  Risk Mitigation.  Retrieved on February 28, 2007 from            http://www.army.mil/armybtkc/focus/cpi/risk.htm

Artley, Will, Stroh, Suzanne (2001).  Establishing an Integrated Performance Measurement System, The Performance-Based Management Handbook.  Vol.2,   pg. 1

 

 

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