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By Craig A. Stevens and his students 

(Link found by Keith Scruggs, TNU 04) 

(Link found by Margaret Lilly, on the motivation to learn, TNU 05)

(Material is summarized from citations immediately following summaries)

Found by Camilla Allen, TNU 2006,,sid19_gci799434,00.html



Kurt Lewin

Fundamental equation of human behavior:

 Where B=individual behavior, F=function of, P=the person, and S=the situation.

Norman R. F. Maier

Adapted Lewin’s model into his classic causal sequence model: 

 Where S=the situation, O=the person, B=the behavior, and A=the activity.

Victor Vroom



Theory states the following:  “felt needs cause behavior, and motivated behavior in a work setting is increased if a person perceives a positive relationship between effort and performance.  Motivated behavior is further increased if there is a positive relationship between good performance and outcomes or rewards, particularly if the outcomes or rewards are valued” (Hersey and Blanchard 33).

Abraham Maslow

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs addresses the need for satisfaction of basic needs before moving to more advanced needs.  Needs may change depending on their importance at the time.  For example, if one is hungry once that need is satisfied other needs become more important.  This relates to motive strength and its importance. 

Clayton Alderfer

Alderfer revamped Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory.  The text states that “Alderfer suggests there are three core needs:  Existence, Relatedness, and Growth” (Hersey and Blanchard 41).  This theory is the ERG theory. 

David McClelland

McClelland studies the need that individuals have to achieve.  McClelland’s work centers on achievement-motivated persons.  Motivation in these persons occurs by achieving tasks and goals.

Elton Mayo

Mayo conducted the famous Hawthorne Studies.  These studies focused on how lighting in the work environment influenced productivity.

Douglas McGregor

Theory X and Theory Y are McGregor’s theories.  Theory X managers assume that punishment is what motivates employees.  Theory Y managers are supporting and encouraging to their subordinates.


Chris Argyris

Pattern A and Pattern B are Argyris’ theories.  Pattern A represents “interpersonal behavior, group dynamics, and organizational norms” (Hersey and Blanchard 62).  Pattern B represents the same qualities as Theory Y.  Argyris also developed the Immaturity-Maturity Theory.  This theory states that as we age our personality traits change from immature to mature.

George C. Homans

Homans addresses informal work groups.  Homans described a social system consisting of three elements.  The elements are as follows:  “Activities, Interactions, and Sentiments” (Hersey and Blanchard 62). 

Frederick Herzberg

Herzberg developed the Motivation-Hygiene Theory.  Herzberg believed that people have two distinct categories of needs.  Hygiene needs “describe people’s environment and serve the primary function of preventing job dissatisfaction . . . they are never completely satisfied” (Hersey and Blanchard 67).  Herzberg called them motivators because he felt that these needs motivated people to perform at a higher level. 

**All information in the above table is from the text entitled Management of Organizational Behavior Leading Human Resources by P. Hersey and K. Blanchard.

Anne M. Stills (TNU 2005)


Kurt Lewin (1890-1947)

If you want to truly understand something, try to change it. - Kurt Lewin


Lewin uses his fundamental equation of human behavior: B = f (P < == > S).  He theorizes that an individual’s behavior is a function of the person inside and the situation outside.  His theory is the basis for situational leadership.  He believes that the situation determines the appropriate leadership behavior. 


Hersey, Paul., Kenneth H. Blanchard, and Dewey E. Johnson. Management of Organizational Behavior: Leading Human Resources. 8th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001.


Dale W. Barner (TNU 2005)



The first step in understanding employees' behavior is looking for what motivates them to underachieve or overachieve. Kurt Lewin says that the situation that the person finds him/herself in causes behavior and that behavior is essentially goal oriented. Goals must be difficult enough to provide challenge, while remaining attainable. If goals remain blocked too many times, the employee may experience frustration, which can lead to aggression, rationalization, regression, fixation, or resignation. A manager must be able to recognize each of these symptoms as a sign of inappropriate motivational goals.


Nancy Sibole (TNU 2004)


Lewin developed the “fundamental equation of human behavior:

B = f (P and S)

B= Behavior

P = Person

S= Situation

     Lewin’s equation suggests that influences on behavior include both the person and the situation and a person’s behavior can be situational.  Lewin further theorized that that people behave or act based on personal motivation or goals.  In order for a leader to be effective, he must understand the follower’s goals and motivating factors.  An effective leader must be able to understand or predict behavior that would result from a person’s

Wendi Hester (TNU 2005)


Kurt Lewin’s Equation Theory


Theories of behavior such as, Kurt Lewin’s behavioral equation theory that individual’s are influenced by situations.  Kurt Lewin’s fundamental equation of human behavior began with a search of “whys.”  .In this equation, Lewin states the B represents the individual behavior, f means a function that has caused the behavior, P is the person, and S is the situation.  Lewin’s equation then suggests that B is a function of something both inside the Person and outside the person in the Situation.  As stated in Paul Hersey, Kenneth Blachared, and Dewey Johnson’s book Management of Organizational Behavior, “something inside the person is motives or needs that are reflected in individual attitudes-an individual’s tendency to act.”


Patricia Fields (TNU 2006)


Hersey, Paul, Kenneth H. Blanchard, and Dewey E. Johnson.  Management of Organizational Behavior.  8th ed.  New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2001.

  1. The “Whys” of behavior

  2. Psychologist

  3. Field Theory

B=f(P and S) 

B = Behavior 

P = Person (Inside) 

S = Situation (Outside) 

  1. Persons are influenced by Situations and Situations are influenced by Persons 

  2. Type of Situational and Contingency Leadership where Appropriate Leader Behavior is determined by the situation

Paul Hersey, Kenneth H. Blanchard, and Dewey E. Johnson, Management of Organizational Behavior, Leading Human Resources, 8th Edition, Prentice-Hall, Inc., 2001

  1. Field of organization behavior and group dynamics. 

  2. Experiential Learning. Learning is best facilitated when there is a conflict between immediate concrete experience and detached analysis within the individual. 

  3. In 1946, launches the Research Center for Group Dynamics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 

  4. His contributions in change theory, action research, and action learning earn him the title of the "father of organization development."

Donald Clark, Website, 1999, 2000,

Norman R.F. Maier

The behavior of one person may influence that person's world and it may also influence other people. Norman Maier


Maier created the formula: S ß à O à B à A.  He theorizes that the situation interacts with the organism (person), which creates goal-oriented behavior that results in an activity.  The activity resulting from Maier’s “cause and effect” sequence may be either desirable or undesirable.  Effective advertising combined with proper timing creates a desirable increase in new patient volume at my clinic.  Positive effort or action produces positive results.


Hersey, Paul., Kenneth H. Blanchard, and Dewey E. Johnson. Management of Organizational Behavior: Leading Human Resources. 8th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001.


Dale W. Barner (TNU 2005)



Norman Maier

     Maier was an industrial psychologist from the University of Michigan.  He was able to take Lewin’s equation and develop it further.  He referred to his model as the “classic sequence model.”

S = Situation or Stimulus

O = Person or Organism

B = Behavior

A = Accomplishment or Activity

     As quoted in the text, Management of Organizational Behavior, Maier states the following:

In order to explain behavior, one must include a description of the S [situation] as well as of the O [organism].  The interaction between them must precede the behavior that results from the interaction.  The product of this interaction in psychology is called perception.  [The resultant] behavior (B) causes changes, which alter the relationship between the organism (O) and its world.  The changes produced by behavior are an accomplishment (A).  This accomplishment may be desirable or undesirable.  In either case, it may alter the stimulus-situation….  Thus, the behavior of one person may influence that person’s world and it may also influence other people. (pg 23)

According to Maier, when an individual is unable to meet his or her goals, there will be a resultant behavior such as aggression, rationalization, or regression.  A leader should use the behavior symptoms to diagnose underlying problems, likely related to frustration.

Wendi Hester (TNU 2005)

Hersey, Blanchard, and Johnson.  “Management of Organizational Behavior”, 8th ed.

  1. Industrial Psychologist form the University of Michigan 

  2. Put together “Situation, Person, Behavior(s), and Activities” 

  1. Paraphrase,  "To explain behavior, include a description of the situation (S) and organization (O).  

    S = the Situation or Stimulus 

    O = Person or Organization 

    • Interaction of S and O precede the behavior (B) which results from the interaction.  

B = the Behavior(s) 

  • The product is called perception.  

  • The resultant behavior (B) causes changes which alters the relationship between the organism (O) and its world. 

  • The change produced by behavior is an accomplishment (A).  

A = Activity or Accomplishment

  • The accomplishment may be desirable or undesirable or undesirable. (Good or Bad)

  • In either case it may alter the stimulus situation.

Paul Hersey, Kenneth H. Blanchard, and Dewey E. Johnson, Management of Organizational Behavior, Leading Human Resources, 8th Edition, Prentice-Hall, Inc., 2001.

Victor Vroom (Expectancy Theory)


Action is the first step in satisfying a need, goal, or motive. Victor Vroom provided insight with his expectancy theory of motivation (Effort à Performance à Reward). Individual perceptions influence the results or outcome of this formula. When an individual perceives a need, he or she will exert an effort or action to satisfy that need. Their “perceived effort-performance probability” is the basis for their motive strength.” Similarly, the motive for achieving the performance is “perceived performance-reward probability.” The reward refers to perceived values or rewards. The key to the Vroom expectancy theory is whether the individual perceives a positive relationship between effort, performance, and reward.


Dale W. Barner (TNU 2005)


Hersey, Paul., Kenneth H. Blanchard, and Dewey E. Johnson. Management of Organizational Behavior: Leading Human Resources. 8th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001.


The research of Victor Vroom says in his "Expectancy Theory" that motivation increases "if a person perceives a positive relationship between effort and performance. If a manager recognizes that each person is different and may need different motivational factors at different times in her life, he or she will be able to manage successfully.

Nancy Sibole (TNU 04)

Hersey, Paul., Kenneth H. Blanchard, and Dewey E. Johnson. Management of Organizational Behavior: Leading Human Resources. 8th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001.


            Victor Vroom is known for the Expectancy Theory.  This theory bases its motivational outcome upon the employee’s behavior, self-evaluation, and what they believe are important values.  Positive rewards for good performance lead to motivating behavior, which continues this cycle.  In this theory three main components depend on one another: effort, performance, and reward.  The component’s relationship dependency produces motivation.  Which all depends on the individual’s felt needs.  Meeting the employee’s felt needs ensures that the cycle will continue to produce desired results.


Janet Williams (TNU 2006)


Hersey, Paul., Kenneth H. Blanchard, and Dewey E. Johnson. Management of Organizational Behavior: Leading Human Resources. 8th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001.


Victor Vroom

     Victor Vroom called his behavioral theory the Expectancy Theory.  He believed that “felt needs cause behavior, and this motivated behavior in a work setting is increased if a person perceives a positive relationship between effort and performance.” (Mgmt. of Org. Behavior pg 33)  He also suggested that a person’s motivated behavior would increase if there were a perceived, valuable reward given for his or her efforts.  Further, he suggested that links between effort and performance, good performance and rewards and achievement of valued outcomes or rewards were important to understanding behavior.


Wendi Hester (TNU 2005)


Hersey, Paul., Kenneth H. Blanchard, and Dewey E. Johnson. Management of Organizational Behavior: Leading Human Resources. 8th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001.

  1. Formulated one of the most popular versions of expectancy theory.

  2. Based on three concepts 

(1) Valence – represents the value or importance that a particular outcome has for a person. It reflects the strength of a person’s desire for or attraction to the outcomes of a particular course of action.   

(2) Instrumentality - Reflects the person’s perception of the relation between a “first level outcome” and a “second-level outcome” Example: It might represent the extent to which a person feels that performance will lead to a promotion.

(3) Expectancy - The extent to which he feels that his efforts will lead to the first level outcome (performance).

  1. Motivation = the sum of Valence x instrumentality x expectancy 

  2. Work -> expectancy (accomplishment) -> instrumentality -> valence (outcome)

  3. Motivation involves a 3 step process 

(Step 1) Does the person fell the second level goal (promotion) is important to him (high in valence). 

(Step 2) Does he feel that the first level outcome (performance) will provide the second level goal (promotion). 

(Step 3) Does he feel exerting effort will result in an increase in the first level goal (Performance).

Boone, Louis E. and Donald D. Bowen, The Great Writings in Management and Organizational Behavior, 2nd edition, Irwin/McGraw-Hill, 1987.

Maslow, Abraham 


Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs says that our motivation depends on which stage of need we find ourselves in: physiological, safety/security, social/affinity, esteem/recognition, or self-actualization. The needs are independent of each other and one need does not have to be fully satisfied to be motivated by another stronger level of need.

Nancy Sibole (TNU 04)



Craig A. Stevens Gives an example of pizza and how he once use Maslow at a commercial/public reproduction provider during a workshop in Cincinnati Ohio.  Once you're full you don't want more.  

  1. 1920’s through the 1950’s (Group called the Second Generation)

  2. (The Great Writings in Management and Organizational Behavior, Page 89-106) was a clinical psychologist,

  3. Published his paper outlining his new theory of motivation in 1943. More than a theory of motivation, the paper represents a theory of human nature.

  4. Maslow’s Needs-Hierarchy Theory of motivation assumes that man’s needs can be visualized in a hierarchy, with each corresponding higher-level need becoming a motivator as the next lower level need is filled. He says that people are constantly in a motivational state, and as one need is satisfied, another rises in its place.

  5. Maslow believed that basic human needs are organized in a hierarchy. Physiological needs rank lowest in the hierarchy, followed by safety and security needs, Membership or social needs, esteem or ego needs, and self-actualization needs.

Physiological needs include the survival needs such as food, water, and shelter. 

Security needs include the need for safety and to feel protected from dangerous situations. 

Membership needs include the need for love and the need to be part of a social group.

Esteem needs include the need for self-esteem and public-esteem. 

The need for self-actualization is the need to become all that one can be. 

  1. Maslow felt that without lower level needs being met one is not usually motivated to meet higher level needs.

Boone, Louis E. and Donald D. Bowen, The Great Writings in Management and Organizational Behavior, 2nd edition, Irwin/McGraw-Hill, 1987.


    In today's business world it is obvious that a company must build and retain qualified employees. Most companies are looking for ways to motivate their existing work force to expand their horizons and build their skill sets. One way to build upon their existing knowledge base is for the employee to return to school. We, Keith Scruggs with ITWCIP Fasteners in Gallatin Tennessee, and Tim Word from the DuPont plant in Old Hickory Tennessee are two examples of this. 

    Although we never met, we have similar stories. We both are well established within our respective companies. However, but we both felt the same way, as if something was missing. Seminars and training sessions could not fill this hole. That is why we both returned to school. Our example might help show companies another way to keep employees while motivating them to return to academics. 

    Our situation relates well to traditional findings on motivation. As an example, consider Abraham Maslow, a famous motivational theorist who developed his very familiar model based on the hierarchy of human needs. One could divide his set of human needs into two groups: deficiency needs and growth needs. The lowest sets of needs, the deficiency needs, Tell us that each lower need must be met before moving to the next higher one. Furthermore, even if a lower level need is satisfied, whenever a deficiency is re-detected, the individual will go back and work to remove the deficiency. These first four deficiency levels needs are: 

1. Physiological Needs: hunger, thirst, bodily comforts, etc. 

2. Safety/security Needs: out of danger 

3. Belonginess and Love Needs: affiliate with others, be accepted; and 

4. Esteem Needs: to achieve, be competent, gain approval and recognition. 

    According to Maslow, an individual is ready to act upon the growth needs only after meeting all of the deficiency needs. Maslow's initial concept included only one growth need--self-actualization. 

    However, what most people do not know is Maslow later differentiated the growth need of "self actualization" with other growth needs.  He added two lower-level growth needs before self-actualization (Maslow & Lowery, 1998) and one higher growth need beyond self-actualization (Maslow, 1971). The new growth needs are: 

5. Cognitive Needs: to know, to understand, and explore

6. Aesthetic Needs: symmetry, order, and beauty 

7. Self-actualization Needs: to find self-fulfillment and realize one's potential; and 

8. Self-transcendence Needs: to connect to something beyond the ego or to help others find self-fulfillment and realize their potential. (Huitt, Paragraphs 1-3) 

    Given these changes the traditional Maslow's hierarchy of human needs pyramid adds the levels as in the figure below.

     By using the new understanding of the "Cognitive" needs of "To know, to understand, and to explore," it is now easier for us to understand why we felt driven to return to finish our degrees. There comes a time when the need to learn and grow becomes a driving force. One cannot meet this need without going into a higher plain that is sometimes associated with the "Self Actualization." However, we now know that Maslow shows us, if a company would help their employees fulfill the "Cognitive" need this may be an effective means to motivate the employee to succeed within the company instead of choosing to look elsewhere for that need fulfillment, possibly with another company. 

    We feel that without even knowing it the Cognitive Need of "To know, to understand, and to explore," was a driving force leading us to graduate from Trevecca Nazarene University in December 2004. 


Keith Scruggs (TNU 2004) is a Quality Lab Technician at ITWCIP Fasteners in Gallatin Tennessee for the past fourteen years. He has worked in the automotive industry in Quality and Research and Development since 1980. He has traveled to over ten different countries including mission work in Cuba. He has been married for twenty-five years to his high school sweet heart and friend, Dawn. Keith and Dawn have a son, Aaron in college at Western Kentucky University and a daughter A'ndrea, also in college at Middle Tennessee State University. Keith will graduate with honors from Trevecca Nazarene University in December of 2004. 

Tim Word (TNU 2004) is currently employed with the DuPont Corporation located in Old Hickory, Tennessee. During his employment, Tim has received a variety of experiences. He has spent three years as a chemical operator, two years as a control electrician, two years as a Six-Sigma Blackbelt, and three years as a supervisor. Currently, Tim has dual responsibilities as the HR representative and the production/maintenance coordinator for the Crystar manufacturing facilities. Tim will also graduate form Trevecca Nazarene University in December of 2004. 

Special thanks to Prof. Craig Stevens for all his help with this project. 

Work cited 

Huitt, William G. February 2004. September 8, 2004. "Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs" 

Maslow, Abraham, & Lowery, R. (Ed.). (1998). Toward a psychology of being (3rd ed.). New York: Wiley & Sons. 

Maslow, Abraham. (1971). The farther reaches of human nature. New York: The Viking Press.



Clayton Alderfer 


Alderfer created the ERG (Existence, Relatedness, and Growth) theory of three core needs. Alderfer’s theory is similar to Maslow’s except that an individual can experience more than one need at a time. The following comparisons are made between Alderfer’s ERG theory and Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Existence is comparable to physiological and safety needs. Relatedness need is comparable to social/affiliation need. Growth is comparable to esteem and self-actualizations needs. Regression to a previous level is permitted, if necessary.


Hersey, Paul., Kenneth H. Blanchard, and Dewey E. Johnson. Management of Organizational Behavior: Leading Human Resources. 8th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001.


Dale W. Barner (TNU 2005)



Clayton Alderfer revised and realigned a version of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. He called it the ERG theory. He suggested that existence, relatedness, and growth were the three basic needs. Existence went with physiological and safety needs. Relatedness is social needs. Growth is the esteem and self-actualization needs. According to Maslow’s theory, one need is the strongest, and a person cannot move onto the next need until that one is satisfied. According to Alderfer’s theory, more than one need is strong at a time, and a person can move to another need before satisfying one. Managers must find and manage accordingly to the needs of their employees.


Hersey, Paul., Kenneth H. Blanchard, and Dewey E. Johnson. Management of Organizational Behavior: Leading Human Resources. 8th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001.


Jennifer Stockling (TNU 2006)


  1. In 1969 wrote a revision of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, called the ERG Theory.  It appeared in Psychological Review in an article entitled "An Empirical Test of a New Theory of Human Need." 

  2. ERG theory (Existence, Relatedness, and Growth), and was created to align Maslow's motivational theory more closely with empirical research.

  3. ERG represent these three levels of needs: 

Existence refers to our concern with basic material existence requirements. 

Relatedness refers to the desire we have for maintaining interpersonal relationships. 

Growth refers to an intrinsic desire for personal development

  1. Very similar to Maslow and based on Maslow.

  2. Different from Maslow.  

  • ERG demonstrates that more than one need may be motivational at the same time. 

  • A lower motivation may not be substantially satisfied before one can move onto higher motivators. 

  • Accounts for differences in need preferences between cultures.  

  • The order of needs can be different for different people.

  • Flexibility allows for a wider range of observed behaviors. 

  • Example, the "starving artist" may place growth needs above existence ones.

  • Acknowledges that if a higher-order need is frustrated, an individual may regress to increase the satisfaction of a lower-order need which appears easier to satisfy. This is known as the frustration-regression principle.

  1. Using the ERG Theory

  • Managers must recognize that an employee has multiple needs to satisfy simultaneously. 

  • According to the ERG theory, focusing exclusively on one need at a time will not effectively motivate. 

  • The frustration-regression principle impacts workplace motivation. If growth opportunities are not provided to employees, they may regress to relatedness needs, and socialize more with co-workers. Or, the inability of the environment or situation to satisfy a need for social interaction might increase the desire for more money or better working conditions. If the manager is able to recognize these conditions, steps can be taken to satisfy the frustrated needs until the subordinate is able to pursue growth again.

Material Based on Envision Software, Incorporated Tampa, Florida, 1998-2004

David C. McClelland


David C. McClelland believed that people had an intense need to achieve. “McClelland’s research led him to believe that the need for achievement is a distinct human motive that can be distinguished from other needs.” (Blanchard, Hersey, and Johnson 48) “The high need for achievement surfaces only when people believe they can influence the outcome.” (Blanchard, Hersey, and Johnson 48) Achievement motivated people want personal accomplishment. They are always thinking on how to improve. Managers must realize that achievement is also a motivating factor.


Hersey, Paul, Kenneth H. Blanchard, and Dewey E. Johnson. Management of Organizational Behavior: Leading Human Resources. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 2001.


Jennifer Stockling (TNU 2006)



McClelland identified two needs. McClelland’s “need for affiliation” is comparable to Maslow’s “social need.” His “need for achievement” is comparable to Maslow’s “self-actualization” (Hersey 48). McClelland, with the assistance of John Atkinson, performed research that demonstrated a relationship between motivation and the probability of success. His research revealed that the degree of motivation and effort rises until the probability of success reaches fifty percent. Motivation then begins to decrease although the probability of success continues to increase (Hersey 32). Repetition can become boring. While repetition benefits success, it depletes motivation. I have noticed this trend in projects that I do at home and the office. The motivation peaks during the planning and implementation phases of a project. When expected results (Vroom theory) are slower and/or less than anticipated, motivation decreases. Eventually either interest is lost or procrastination and burnout occurs. I believe the solution to this phenomenon involves setting and achieving interim goals. Increasing the degree of difficulty or challenge is another option for avoiding McClelland’s “motivational bell curve.”

There are other theorists, such as Elton Mayo whose research in the Hawthorne studies revealed perceived benefits. Workers perceived changes in environment, both good and bad, as management interest. Subsequent increase in motivation caused increased production (Hersey 57). This research helped develop today’s management systems.

Hersey, Paul., Kenneth H. Blanchard, and Dewey E. Johnson. Management of Organizational Behavior: Leading Human Resources. 8th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001.


Dale W. Barner (TNU 2005)



Just like people search for the meaning in their lives, they search for meaning in their workplace. David McClellan has identified an additional need to add to Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, the need for achievement. According to McClellan, "Achievement motivated people are more concerned with personal achievement than with the rewards of success. They respond favorably to information about their work. They are not interested in comments about their personal characteristics, such as how cooperative or helpful they are… They habitually spending time thinking about how to do things better." Although they are usually high performers and receive promotions quickly, they do not necessarily make the best managers, especially when their employees need a higher level of social affiliation than they do.


Nancy Sibole (TNU 04)


  1. Today (Major Current Contributions) (The Great Writings in Management and Organizational Behavior, Pages 384-394)

  2. Chairman of the Board of Directors of McBer and Company and Professor of Psychology at Harvard University around 1987. 

  3. Main themes Need for Achievement is a Human Motive.  You can recognize the Achievement Motivated person In each group

  4. Individuals with a high need to achieve when given a task will set the objective to moderately difficult but Achievable (overload Principle) 

  5. Achievement motivated people do not leave outcomes to chance everything is planned out Are more concerned with personal achievement

  6. McClelland’s interests lie in the association between achievement motivation and entrepreneurial activities. 

  7. His studies confirm the existence of a strong relationship between achievement motivation and both economic and entrepreneurial success. 

  8. In summary, most of the research supports the hypothesis that need for achievement motivation contributes to economic and entrepreneurial success.

  9. McClelland believed that people can be divided into two groups: 


  • Achiever is challenged by opportunity and is willing to work hard to achieve something. They would choose experts over friends when given a choice of selecting a working partner. 

  • Psychologists determine an individual’s nAch score (Need for Achievement) by the frequency with which the person mentions doing things better.


  • Affiliators have a high need for affiliation with other (nAff). 

  • They are not greatly challenged to achieve results and would choose friends over experts when given a choice of selecting a working partner.

Boone, Louis E. and Donald D. Bowen, The Great Writings in Management and Organizational Behavior, 2nd edition, Irwin/McGraw-Hill, 1987.

Elton Mayo

Craig A. Stevens Facilitates On Mayo


In 1924, Elton Mayo observed workers at Western Electric Company to see if they were more productive when working conditions improved. The so-called Hawthorne Studies had a surprising outcome. Workers with better lighting in their work areas had higher productivity. However, workers in a control group whose conditions remained unchanged had productivity increases too. The conclusion was that these workers became more productive because the increased attention made them feel more valued.


Eileen Tremblay (TNU 2005)

Hersey, Paul, Kenneth H. Blanchard, and Dewey E. Johnson. Management of Organizational Behavior. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 2001.


  1. Hawthorne experiments.-- 1920’s through the 1950’s 

  2. Group that the book Great Writing In Management and Organizational Behavior" by Louis E. Boone and Donald D. Bowen calls the Second Generation.

  3. He was a psychologist.

  4. He demolished the accepted notions that workers were motivated only by economic needs and that they responded to management’s incentive plans as independent individuals operating according to economically rational criteria. 

  5. Contradicted Taylor’s work and the basic assumptions, which permeated management theory up to that time.

  6. The Hawthorne studies produced ample date to show that social and group membership concerns frequently took precedence in the motivation of the workers.   

  7. Book In Search of Excellence Calls Mayo -- Closed System Social Actor Akin to Douglas McGreagor, Chester Barnard and Philip Selznick


“In 1924, efficiency experts at the Hawthorne, Illinois, plant of the Western Electric Company designed a research program to study the effects of illumination on productivity. In the initial phases of the study, efficiency experts assumed that more light would result in higher output. Two groups of employees were selected: an experimental, or test, group that worked under normal illumination conditions in the plant. As lighting power was increased, the output of the test group went up as anticipated. Unexpectedly, however, the output of the control group went up also—without any increase in light. When illumination was decreased to the level of moonlight with one test group, output increased even further. The illumination test ended in April 1927, when the researchers concluded that something other than illumination was affecting productivity.” (Management of Organizational Behavior p57)

The next phase of the experiments involved a group of women that assembled telephone relays. They received scheduled rest periods, company lunches, and shorter workweeks. Next, the researchers returned them back to the exact way they had been at the beginning of the experiment. Instead of a negative impact, it had a positive impact. Researches later concluded that, “The answers were found not in the production aspect of the experiment (changes in plant and physical working conditions) but in the human aspects. Because of the attention given them by experimenters, the women felt that they were an important part of the company. They no longer viewed themselves as isolated individuals, working together only in the sense that they were physically close to each other. Instead, they had become participating members of a congenial, cohesive work group. The relationships that developed elicited feelings of affiliation, competence, and achievement.” (MOB p58)

Michael Shaffield (TNU 2005)

Hersey, Paul, Kenneth H. Blanchard, and Dewey E. Johnson. Management of Organizational Behavior. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 200

            The importance of Elton Mayo and the Hawthorne studies is evident in today’s workforce.  Mayo and his experiments conducted at the Hawthorne, Illinois plant of Western Electric Company initiated the human relations management style.  The Hawthorne experiments used changes in lighting within the plant to examine the lightings influence on worker productivity.  The scientists determined that the lighting had no effect on productivity.  The experimenters surmised that the increase in productivity was due to the attention given to the employees during the experiment.  The Hawthorne studies proved the need for management to understand the human not only the worker.  Prior to the studies, Mayo felt the workers productivity was poor due to the employee’s feelings of unimportance.  Mayo felt the workers felt “unimportant, confused, and unattached” (Hersey and Blanchard 59).  Mayo’s Hawthorne studies showed a need for a human focus in management styles.  This movement towards employees feeling important and humane treatment still exists in today’s work environment.  The Hawthorne studies and experiments demonstrate the start of the human relations movement. 

Anne M. Stills (TNU 2005)

Hersey, Paul, Kenneth H. Blanchard, and Dewey E. Johnson. Management of Organizational Behavior. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 2001.



Craig A. Stevens explains Mayo and gives examples Using this matrix and examples of gangs and star performing teams.

Boone, Louis E. and Donald D. Bowen, The Great Writings in Management and Organizational Behavior, 2nd edition, Irwin/McGraw-Hill, 1987.


Douglas McGregor

In today's work environment, Managers no longer look to Douglas McGregor's research on Theory X or Theory Y management for all of the answers to management. Although some parts of the theories are still used, managers of today know that management style is more complex than the simple human nature assumptions attributed to the workers in McGregor's theory.

Nancy Sibole (TNU 04)

  1. The book In Search of Excellence calls McGregor a Closed System Social Actor Akin to Mayo, Chester Barnard and Philip Selznick

  2. Distinguished between two sets of management assumptions, which he called Theory X and Theory Y.

  3. Theory X tends to be a self-fulfilling prophecy. If management treats workings as if they have theory X characteristics, they eventually begin to exhibit those characteristics. 

  4. This approach is no longer adequate, because it satisfies only people’s lower level needs (Maslow). These are fairly well satisfied in modern societies…managers should concentrate on making employee’s jobs more challenging (through job enlargement) and through participation and management by objectives. 












Craig A. Stevens Talking about Theory X and Y













Argyris, Chris 

In the 1980's, Chris Argyris developed his theory of Pattern A and Pattern B. Similar to McGregor's Theories X and Y, Pattern A people and groups tend toward Theory X and are more rigid in their supervision and management styles. Pattern B people and groups resemble Theory Y traits and are more flexible and open to new ideas. Argyris believed people could move between X/Y and A/B, thus a Theory X manager who believed most workers were lazy might also be open and supportive.

Chris Argyris also developed the Theory of Immaturity-Maturity. Individuals progress at different rates from the total immaturity of early childhood (being passive, dependent, shallow, limited activity) to maturity (active, independent, deeper thoughts, more varied interests). Most organizations have bureaucratic or pyramidal values that foster immaturity in workers and "in many cases, when people join the workforce, they are kept from maturing by the management practices utilized in their organizations" (Hersey 65).

Argyris's Immaturity-Maturity Theory is the most intriguing of these motivational theories. Unfortunately, most organizations still adopt the bureaucratic or pyramidal style of leadership. This authoritarian style often resembles a family with a dominating parent (management) exercising almost total control over the children (employees). It is no wonder in these environments that trust and creativity are rare. There are exceptions however. The leadership of the author's employer, the YWCA of Nashville, values employees and treats them with respect. As a result, YWCA staff members are more independent and have room to grow.

It is easy to apply this theory to many circumstances outside the workplace. Families in which parents are either over-protective or, on the other extreme, do not protect their children at all may have offspring who are immature and have trouble forming long-term relationships. Governments with strong central authority where people have little personal freedom usually have citizens who are dependent financially and psychologically. Schools where rigid rules are more important than the free flow of ideas will probably graduate students with narrow views and a lack of creativity. It is obvious that human beings flourish only when they are in an environment with trust, support and independence.

Eileen Tremblay (TNU 2005)

Hersey, Paul, Kenneth H. Blanchard, and Dewey E. Johnson. Management of Organizational Behavior. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 2001.













Management Reacts to The Employees












Chris Argyris, “The Individual and Organization: Some Problems of Mutual Adjustment” The Great Writings In Management and Organizational Behavior, 2nd Edition, pg........ 139,Boone Bowen, McGraw Hill, 1987

Rensis Likert























George Casper Homans

George Homans developed the idea of Informal Work Groups in the 1950's. He believed social systems have three parts: Activities (things people do), interactions (how people behave toward each other in their activities), and sentiments (perspectives and feelings of the people in a group). Each area needs to be present in order to maximize growth and productivity.

Eileen Tremblay (TNU 2005)

Hersey, Paul, Kenneth H. Blanchard, and Dewey E. Johnson. Management of Organizational Behavior. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 2001.

George Homan's suggests informal work groups as a solution to motivation, establishing peer pressure and group norms to get the job done.

Nancy Sibole (TNU 04)

  1. Developed a model of social systems. 

  2. Asked the question, Where do the strong informal work groups get their power? 

  3. Three Elements 

  • Activities – the tasks that people perform 

  • Interactions – the behaviors that occur between people in performing the tasks 

  • Sentiments – the attitudes that develop between individuals and within groups 

  1. Although these concepts are separate, they are closely related.

  2. The elements are mutually dependent. 

  3. A change in any one of these three elements will produce some change in the other two.

  1. In an organization positive reactions to these elements are essential for survival. 

  2. As a group becomes more alike, they develop norms and expectations on how the members will act. 

  • Negative (kidding, harsh criticism, etc.) or (Could be Positive) 

  • Group Members May React in Several Ways (Fit in, Move away from the group, Leave the company)

Paul Hersey, Kenneth H. Blanchard, and Dewey E. Johnson, Management of Organizational Behavior, Leading Human Resources, 8th Edition, Prentice-Hall, Inc., 2001.

Craig A. Stevens












Herzberg, Frederick 


The research completed by Frederick Herzberg places an increased level of responsibility with human resources to control what he calls, "hygiene factors." Human resources can prevent dissatisfaction in the workplace by controlling the workers environment, which allows management to motivate with the job itself. When talking about job focus instead of hygiene factors, Herzberg refers to "feelings of achievement, professional growth, and recognition that one can experience."

Nancy Sibole (TNU 04)


In an article titled, "One More Time: How Do You Motivate Employees?" Frederick Herzberg says that there are many different ways to motivate employees, but most of them that are currently in use only serve to cause movement, not motivation. He lists the different ways that employers have tried to motivate in the past with little success and reminds us again of Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Herzberg says, "Motivators were the primary cause of satisfaction and hygiene factors were the primary cause of unhappiness on the job." Herzberg warns against job loading, which just increases the production numbers expected from an employee and "enlarges the meaninglessness of the job." Job enrichment is what works to motivate employees. In a control group, the job-enriched group liked their jobs better, had lower absenteeism and a higher rate of promotion. Herzberg says that a company cannot enrich all jobs, but those that can, should be.

Nancy Sibole (TNU 04)


Motivation-Hygiene Theory


            Frederick Herzberg developed a theory regarding the growing importance of the needs of self-actualization and esteem.  The Motivation-Hygiene theory concludes, “people have two different categories of needs, hygiene factors and motivators, that are essentially independent of each other and affect behavior in different ways” (67).  Hygiene is defined as the environment and its primary reason for being is to prevent job discontent.  The second grouping is called motivators, as they seem to motivate the individual to better performance.  Another way to view this theory is in comparison to Alderfer’s ERG theory.  Herzberg’s hygiene factors relate to Alderfer’s needs of relatedness and existence while motivators relates to the growth needs.  Hygiene factors, when fulfilled, tend to “eliminate dissatisfaction and work restriction, but they do little to motivate an individual to superior performance or increased capacity” (69).  Motivators, when enhanced, allow for growth and advancement.  How this translates to the workforce today is that hygiene factors affect the employee’s compliance, whereas, motivators affect an employee’s skills (69).

 Another factor of Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene theory is job enrichment.  “Job enrichment means the deliberate upgrading of responsibility, scope, and challenge in work” (71).  An example would be to gather a group of employees from around a manufacturing plant act in a committee to decide the requirements for community donations. 


Amanda K. Beaty (TNU 2006)


Hersey, Paul, Kenneth H. Blanchard, and Dewey E. Johnson. Management of Organizational Behavior. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 2001.


  1. Should stress intrinsic “motivators” (achievement, etc) rather than extrinsic “hygienes” (money, etc) to motivate employees (Motivator – Hygiene Theory).

Hygiene Factors

  • Hygiene factors only motivate when missing, once obtained becomes non-factor 

  • Hygiene factors are extrinsic and can cause dissatisfaction when they are not met, but cannot satisfy or motivate if they are present. 

  • Examples of hygiene factors include the following: Working conditions Company policy and administration Relationship with supervisors Relationship with peers Pay


  • Motivators increase through job enrichment.

  • Motivator factors are intrinsic and lead to job satisfaction and motivation.

  • Examples of motivator factors include the following: Recognition Achievement Possibility of growth Advancement, new challenges Responsibility Job itself


Warren Bennis

The four common traits found by Warren Bennis in his five-year study of ninety effective leaders are management of attention, management of meaning, management of trust, and management of self.

Nancy Sibole (TNU 04)

Susan Heathfield

In an article by Susan Heathfield titled, "Set Them Free: Two Musts for Motivation!" Heathfield suggests that the human resources department should review company policies and take steps to provide increased motivation. Heathfield says that hundreds of rules and policies prove to employees that companies expect them to misbehave when there are rules for every infraction. The steps to motivate employees are: 

  1. Make only the minimum number of rules and policies to protect your workplace. 

  2. Publish the rules and policies to educate all employees. 

  3. Involve many employees in the writing of organizational values and codes of conduct. 

  4. Develop guidelines for supervisors and educate them about the fair and consistent application of the few rules and policies. 

Once the new policies are in place, job focused activities can increase motivation through employee involvement. Expressed expectations, feedback, and asking the employees for suggestions are ways to empower employees and focus on the job at hand. The suggestions mentioned in Heathfield's article coincide with Herzberg's theory and serve to remove the hygiene factors that might cause employee dissatisfaction. The reduction in the number of policies, allows for focus on the job itself.

Nancy Sibole (TNU 04)


Barbara A. Glanz 

Herzberg speaks of the needs that people have related to growth that are essential to job satisfaction. He classifies achievement, recognition for achievement, responsibility, and growth and advancement as motivator factors, which he ties into a job enrichment process for improving morale and motivation workers. Barbara A. Glanz who has written many articles on morale in the workplace has a similar approach. Glanz put a lot of emphasis on building trust in the workplace. That is the workers must trust management to do right by them. Glanz explains that, "trust will only be rebuilt if feelings of emotions are taken into consideration, and ongoing relationships are created (2)." Glanz reveals findings from studies conducted in 1946, 1981 and 1995 in which employees listed the top ten things that motivate them. The top three have remained the same in all of the surveys. They are: 

  1. Interesting work 

  2. Full appreciation for the work they've done and 

  3. A feeling of being "in" on things Glanz concludes that what motivates people are based on the human level and not on a monetary or reward incentive level. 

She ends her article with a quote from Hyler Bracy who in his book Managing from the Heart says that all employees are crying out for the behaviors that make up the acronym "HEART:" 

  • Hear and understand me. 

  • Even if you disagree with me, please don't make me wrong, 

  • Acknowledge the greatness within me. 

  • Remember to look for my loving intentions. 

  • Tell me the truth with compassion. 

All of these requests fall on the human level and lead to caring, sharing relationships and the rebuilding of trust (Glanz 9).

Pam Gregory (TNU 04) based on Glanz, Barbara A. Rebuilding Trust in Turbulent Times. McGraw-Hill, 1996. 3 May 2004 (link


Donna K. Steinkamp, TNU 2005





Victor Vroom

Based on what the employee believes about his behavior and what he perceives as important or of value.

·          Person’s effort will result in performance

·          Person’s effort will be rewarded

·          Perceived value an individual places on outcome

·          Must be present before a high level of motivation can occur







Maslow – People are motivated by needs they want to satisfy

·          Physiological

·          Safety

·          Social

·          Esteem

·          Self-fulfillment

McClelland – Individual and environment form three basic motives

·          Need for achievement

·          Need for power

·          Need for affiliation

Every individual has each of these motives in varying degrees, but one motive will be dominant






Fredrick Herzberg-Motivators-Aspects of people’s jobs that made them feel good or satisfied were factors intrinsic to the job.

·          Achievement

·          Recognition

·          Work itself

·          Responsibility, advancement & personal growth

Coined the phrase job enrichment as a motivator.  Employment empowerment is a compelling motivator by itself.

Hygiene Factors

·    Comprise of work environment rather than work itself

·    Company policies, relations, administration

·    Only motivate when missing

·    Are extrinsic and cause dissatisfaction when they are not met


Craig’s Opinion

·    Everything fits together in one system or is weeded out

·    Everything has to thrive on change

·    Everyone is responsible



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