By Renee Tomlin, Lindsay
Bransford, and Erica Lizano (TNU 2008)
In today's business world, organizations must
compete in a global environment that is constantly changing. As a
result, change is a concern that businesses face every day. The best
method to overcome this challenge is through effective leadership. The
following are some managerial concepts and theories that explain methods
of managing change.
MANAGERIAL CONCEPTS RELATED TO MANAGING
I. CREATE POSITIVE ENVIRONMENT:
In order for businesses to lower the barriers
to change, management must create a positive environment by focusing on
good attributes and building enthusiasm. In turn, employee’s fears will
diminish and they will be more motivated to change.
Lower the Barriers to Change
According to Karl Schoemer, President and
Founder of VisionQuest, there are five things that smart leaders can do
to lower the barriers:
They Explain Why There is a Need for
They Hold People Accountable
They Reward Positive Influence
They Take Change as it Comes
They Create Positive Momentum
Karl. Five Things Really Smart Leaders do to Lower the Barriers to
New Reality. 2005. 24 September 2008
Present Change in a Positive Manner
Dr. William H. Halbert explains in his book
Relationship Management, that “Contrary to popular opinion, change is a
motivator and people love it. People tend to support those ideas in
which they have a hand in creating.” “Success lies in the way change is
presented. As a leader, you have the opportunity to make change an
exciting adventure simply by giving your team members, when at all
possible, a voice, and a choice. ‘Choice’ is a powerful word indicating
ownership and freedom, two elements that boost any team’s morale.”
William. Relationship Management. Tennessee: The Halbert Company,
Appreciative Inquiry Motivates People
A Periodic Report by Merryn Rutledge,
President of ReVisions, talks about motivating people to change. She
says that’ “Appreciative inquiry” is a way of assisting change. It is a
process that begins with the assumption that discovering the best of
what motivates us to imagine something new. Organizations and people can
be thought of as problems to be solved or miracles to be appreciated. (Cooperrider
and Srivastva) Managers can use appreciative inquiry to bring out the
best in organizations, departments, teams, and individuals.
Merryn. ReVisions: Ideas for Leaders. 1998. 24 September 2008
McNamara says managers cannot motivate
employees. Therefore, managers need to set up an environment where
employees will motivate and empower themselves. What motivates one
person will not motivate another. Therefore, McNamara suggests meeting
with each employee to ensure his or her motivational factors are
understood and met. He also states, “Motivating employees starts with
motivating yourself.” When mangers are enthusiastic about their job, it
is likely that the enthusiasm will spread.
McNamara, MBA, PhD. Basics About Employee Motivation (Including
Steps You Can Take). 1997-2008. 24 September 2008, Adapted from the
Field Guide to Leadership and Supervision
Glaser believes fear influences employees to
withhold their feelings from management. Therefore, managers should keep
the line of communication open at all times. Good leaders are not afraid
to ask questions and are not intimidated by difficult questions. They
try to put themselves in other people’s shoes in order to understand how
they feel. At the same time, they are not people pleasers. When managers
are open and honest, employees know where they stand. In turn,
employee’s fears diminish and they become more productive.
Judith. Motivation Connect 365. August 2006. 24 September 2008
II. ESTABLISH GOOD ETHICS:
Leaders who demonstrate good ethics and a
servant heart will earn respect and inspire their followers to change.
Aronson says good leaders earn the confidence
and loyalty of their employees through ethical behavior. He says ethical
values tend to motivate respectable leaders. Good leaders set boundaries
of acceptable behavior and establish mutual respect for all. In
addition, ethical leaders influence their followers to pursue mutual
goals by establishing a vision of a better future for everyone.
Edward. Integrating leadership styles and ethical perspectives.
December 2001. 24 September 2008
Singh believes a good leader is one that is a
good servant. He says, “The leaders who tend to get more cooperation and
motivation out of those they lead, are themselves hard workers who
without hesitation will get into the trenches with their people.” In
addition, Singh states that good leaders are good listeners who show
they care about other people’s feelings. When employees believe their
manager cares about them, they will eagerly follow.
A. The Secret Benefit of Being a Servant Leader. 2008. 24 September
Passion and Purpose
Martin Luther King did not say, "I have a very
good plan," he shouted, "I have a dream!” You must provide passion and a
strong sense of purpose of the change. Feelings are contagious. When
someone around you is feeling blue, it can change your attitude.
Likewise, when someone is passionate about something, it can have an
inspiring effect. Build the change so that others want to be part of it.
When you give them part of it, also give them the authority and control
to act upon it. Share the power so that they do not feel powerless. You
want them to feel useful and enthusiastic. A good manager will make them
feel that the change could not happen without them!
Leadership and Change. November 1997. 24 September 2008
III. MAINTAIN OPEN COMMUNICATION:
Corporations have to keep the lines of
communication open and give on-going feedback.
Talk About Your Mistakes
How to Win Friends & Influence People by Dale
Carnegie explains that to motivate people to change and improve their
performance, it is important to “talk about your own mistakes first.”
Carnegie states, ”Talk about your own mistakes before criticizing the
Dale. How to Win Friends & Influence People. New York: Pocket Books
Steve Beller, PhD is a clinical psychologist
and researcher from Health Data Services. He explains that, “information
alone is typically not enough. Sure, people must know how to change and
that requires good, understandable, readily available information. They
also need ongoing feedback, i.e., information that enables them to know
how well they’re doing and what adjustments they can make to promote
their progress.” “However, not all the information in the world will
foster change unless people are motivated to make the changes. I suggest
that the greatest human motivator is emotion-both positive/pleasurable
emotions (love, joy, satisfaction, peace of mind, etc.) and
negative/painful emotions (anxiety/fear, disgust, sadness/depression,
shame, guilt, etc.). Therefore, when people feel good about changing
certain behaviors and feel badly when not making those changes,
motivation maximizes and change is most likely to occur. Well, what has
to happen for someone to have (or not to have) such motivating emotions?
I suggest that our beliefs and values about ourselves, others, the
world, the future, life-purpose, etc. are the primary triggers of these
Steve, PhD. Curing Healthcare. 27 January 2007. 24 September 2008
IV. EDUCATE AND EMPOWER PEOPLE:
The business world is constantly changing.
Therefore, managers should empower people to make decisions and be
responsible for educating themselves about the changes.
According to The DEMING Management Method by
Dr. W Edwards Deming, people within an organization “must to be
continually acquiring new knowledge and new skills that are required to
deal with new materials and new methods of production. Education and
retraining - an investment in people - are required for long-term
The DEMING Management Method. New York: The Berkley Publishing
Education is Everyone’s Responsibility
Due to shifting trends and new technology, the
workplace is continually changing. The technical knowledge that people
have today will be obsolete in three years. Anyone employed in the
computer field must be able to adapt to technological changes. In turn,
technology is forcing a change in leadership styles. It has become the
technician’s responsibility to find the best way to get the job done,
not management alone. Managers in the computer field have to motivate
their employees to assume responsibility and educate themselves, in
order to compete in an ever-changing high-tech world.
L. Motivation in the Workplace. 2003. 24 September 2008
The book Flight of the Buffalo, by James
Belasco and Ralph Stayer, explains two different types of leadership.
The Buffalo metaphor is the autocratic type of leader, whereby the herd
follows his commands. When the head buffalo dies, the herd stands still
because they never had to think for themselves. The authors explain that
good leaders must empower their employees. The authors compared the team
approach to a flock of geese where everyone heads toward a certain goal,
but the flock changes formation when necessary.
Belasco, Ralph C. Stayer. Flight of the Buffalo. Warner Books Inc.,
V. DEVELOP REWARD AND INCENTIVE PROGRAMS:
There are many types of rewards and incentives
used to motivate people. In order to encourage maximum employee
participation, institutions should develop incentives that satisfy
several motivations, rather than a single incentive program directed to
only one individual.
Participation Motivates People
Rewards and punishments produce temporary
compliance. However, they are ineffective at producing lasting change in
behaviors. Rewards only motivate employees to get rewards. They do not
create an enduring commitment or long-term improvement in the quality of
performance. Kohn says, “We have to stop asking how motivated employees
are, and start asking how employees are motivated.” This is not an easy
task due to the fact that each individual is motivated differently.
Employees who love what they do are the ones who excel. The goal is to
get employees intrinsically motivated, not extrinsically motivated.
Managers should allow employees to participate in making decisions,
express their ideas, and collaborate with others to form effective
Rewards Produce Temporary Compliance. 1994. 24 September 2008. The
Small Business Forum, Winter 1994/1995 issue
Non-financial Rewards Motivate People
Managing Human Resources by Luis R.
Gomez-Mejia, David B. Balkin, and Robert L. Cardy says that it is
important to use motivation and non-financial incentives. “Although pay
is certainly a strong motivator, it is not an equally strong motivator
for everyone. Some people are more interested in the non-financial
aspects of their work.” “Non-financial rewards include public and
nonpublic praise, honorary titles, expanded job responsibilities, paid
and unpaid sabbatical leaves, mentoring programs, and 100-percent
Balkin, Cardy Robert. Managing Human Resources. New Jersey: Pearson
Prentice Hall, 2007.
Various Incentives For Different People
The ERG theory (as explained in the next
section below) coincides with the ideas presented in Stephen Covey’s
book, The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People. According to Covey,
developing highly effective incentive programs requires understanding
the nature of individual motivation. People are motivated by the
following factors: spouse/partner, family, money, work, possessions,
pleasure, friends, enemies, church, self, or principles.
Examples of Motivators:
Employees motivated by "spouse/partner"
value extra money they can spend with their partner, time off to
spend with them, or incentives such as dinners or vacations, 4-day
Employees motivated by "family" value
family events, company picnics, or time with their family.
Employees motivated by "money" value cash
incentives, commissions, bonuses, or pay raises.
Employees motivated by "work" value doing
a good job and receiving recognition.
Employees motivated by "possessions" value
status symbols (corner office, fancy desk, public awards, special
Employees motivated by "pleasure" value
"fun" incentives (tickets to Disneyland or local entertainment).
Employees motivated by "friends" value
social incentives (parties, theater tickets, picnics, potluck
events, other get-togethers).
Employees motivated by "enemies" value the
challenges associated with competition and winning (Blue team vs.
Gold team, our company against their company, becoming #1).
Employees motivated by "church" value
money if it supports their church and/or family activities.
Incentives that are in harmony with their beliefs or their faith
tend to motivate them.
Employees motivated by "self" value
incentives that give them freedom of expression and self-development
(allowing them to be part of the team creating a change program,
finding ways to improve processes, allowing them to express their
Employees motivated by "principles" value
opportunities to use their talents and abilities in a meaningful way
(seeing the results of their work improve working conditions for
them and others, working with company-sponsored community programs,
creating new jobs in a plant or office's new location)
People to Change - Through Incentive Programs, Motivating Employees
. September 1996. 24 September 2008
People are motivated to behave in certain ways
if they believe what they are doing will produce results that benefit
Victor Vroom defines expectancy as “a
momentary belief concerning the likelihood that a particular act will be
followed by a particular outcome.” The degree of influence weighs
heavily on a person’s expectancy level. A person is not motivated if
they are expecting a low or undesirable outcome. However, if they are
expecting a high outcome then they are more motivated.
Library. 2002. 24 September 2008
Even though Julian B. Rotter’s theory is known
as Social Learning Theory, the basis for his theory is the same as the
Expectancy Theory. Rotter believes a person’s personality and behavior
are changeable. By changing the environment, a person’s perception is
altered. In turn, the person’s behavior will change.
The Social Learning Theory of Julian B Rotter. 2000-2008. 24
The Equity theory “Calls for a fair balance to
be struck between an employee’s inputs and an employee’s outputs.” John
Stacey Adams believes employees have greater motivation if they feel
their outputs are equal to their inputs. If the employee feels there is
a shift and their input exceeds the output from the employer then the
employee may leave the establishment, seek more pay from the employer,
or become less likely to keep the company’s best interest in mind. In
addition, an employee on this end of the shift is at risk of developing
burnout. On the other hand, if the employee feels there is a balance
then they are more likely to experience job satisfaction, be highly
motivated, and experience high performance.
Kellie. TimeAnalyzer. 2006. 24 September 2008.Adams’ Equity Theory –
Balancing Employee Inputs and Outputs
The ERG Theory is a streamlined version of
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory. Clayton Alderfer reduced the number
of needs from five needs in Maslow’s hierarchy to three, known as ERG
Theory. Alderfer relates Growth with Self-Actualization and Esteem,
Relatedness with Social, and Existence with Safety and Physiological.
The ERG Theory suggests that a person who is unable to move forward will
regress to a lower level. The ERG Theory also allows a person to have
more than one need at a time.
Kenneth H. Blanchard, Dewey E. Johnson. Management of Organizational
Behavior. New Jersey: Pearson Education, 2008.
Goal Setting Theory
Goal setting is a powerful motivator, whether
it is for personal or group growth/development.
Edwin Locke believes that the results of tasks
performed depends on the level of difficulty and the amount of
information given. Those who receive a difficult task with specific
information have more positive results than those who receive a vague
but easy task to complete.
Ltd. 1995-2008. 24 September 2008
Two Factor Theory
Job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction act
independently of each other (also known as Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene
The Two Factor Theory was developed by
Frederick Herzberg. He distinguishes between motivators (recognition,
responsibility, and challenging work) and hygiene factors (status, job
security, salary, and fringe benefits). Hygiene factors may not
necessarily provide job satisfaction, but these factors ensure an
employee will not become dissatisfied. Motivators provide a positive
influence on employees and contribute to higher performance.
Through our research, we found that all of the
concepts are interrelated with one another. Every theory hinges on the
employee’s expectations, equity, or personality. These characteristics
influence the degree of motivation experienced by the employee. However,
they are different in that each theory suggests a specific influential
Aronson, Edward. Integrating leadership styles
and ethical perspectives. December 2001. 24 September 2008 <http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3981/is_200112/ai_n9012963/pg_1?tag=artBody;col1>.
Carter McNamara, MBA, PhD. Basics About
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September 2008 <http://www.managementhelp.org/guiding/motivate/basics.htm>.
Clark, Don. Leadership and Change. November
1997. 24 September 2008 <http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadchg.html>.
Fowler, Kellie. TimeAnalyzer. 2006. 24
September 2008 <http://www.timeanalyzer.com/lib/ioequity.htm>.
Glaser, Judith. Motivation Connect 365. August
2006. 24 September 2008 <http://motivationconnect.bdmetrics.com/NST-2-50101848/Keep-Fear-from-Holding-Your-Employees-Back.aspx>.
James A. Belasco, Ralph C. Stayer. Flight of
the Buffalo. Warner Books Inc., 1993.
Kohn, Alfie. Rewards Produce Temporary
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Mearns, Jack. The Social Learning Theory of
Julian B Rotter. 2000-2008. 24 September 2008 <http://psych.fullerton.edu/jmearns/rotter.htm>.
Mind Tools Ltd. 1995-2008. 24 September 2008 <http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newHTE_87.htm>.
Motivating Employees . September 1996. 24
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Schoemer, Karl. The New Reality. 2005. 24
September 2008 <http://www.vqsolutions.com/pdf/NR_LowerBarriers.pdf>.
Singh, Mark A. The Secret Benefit of Being a
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Steve Beller, PhD. Curing Healthcare. 27
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